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Articles by Baohua Gu
Total Records ( 2 ) for Baohua Gu
  Erick Cardenas , Wei-Min Wu , Mary Beth Leigh , Jack Carley , Sue Carroll , Terry Gentry , Jian Luo , David Watson , Baohua Gu , Matthew Ginder-Vogel , Peter K. Kitanidis , Philip M. Jardine , Jizhong Zhou , Craig S. Criddle , Terence L. Marsh and James M. Tiedje
  Microbial enumeration, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and chemical analysis were used to evaluate the in situ biological reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) in a long-term experiment (more than 2 years) conducted at a highly uranium-contaminated site (up to 60 mg/liter and 800 mg/kg solids) of the U.S. Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, TN. Bioreduction was achieved by conditioning groundwater above ground and then stimulating growth of denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing bacteria in situ through weekly injection of ethanol into the subsurface. After nearly 2 years of intermittent injection of ethanol, aqueous U levels fell below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking water and groundwater (<30 µg/liter or 0.126 µM). Sediment microbial communities from the treatment zone were compared with those from a control well without biostimulation. Most-probable-number estimations indicated that microorganisms implicated in bioremediation accumulated in the sediments of the treatment zone but were either absent or in very low numbers in an untreated control area. Organisms belonging to genera known to include U(VI) reducers were detected, including Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Acidovorax spp. The predominant sulfate-reducing bacterial species were Desulfovibrio spp., while the iron reducers were represented by Ferribacterium spp. and Geothrix spp. Diversity-based clustering revealed differences between treated and untreated zones and also within samples of the treated area. Spatial differences in community structure within the treatment zone were likely related to the hydraulic pathway and to electron donor metabolism during biostimulation.
  Dong Jiang , Haitao Guo , Chunxiao Xu , Jinhong Chang , Baohua Gu , Lijuan Wang , Timothy M. Block and Ju-Tao Guo
  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of chronic hepatitis and is currently treated with alpha interferon (IFN-α)-based therapies. However, the underlying mechanism of IFN-α therapy remains to be elucidated. To identify the cellular proteins that mediate the antiviral effects of IFN-α, we created a HEK293-based cell culture system to inducibly express individual interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and determined their antiviral effects against HCV. By screening 29 ISGs that are induced in Huh7 cells by IFN-α and/or up-regulated in HCV-infected livers, we discovered that viperin, ISG20, and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) noncytolytically inhibited the replication of HCV replicons. Mechanistically, inhibition of HCV replication by ISG20 and PKR depends on their 3`-5` exonuclease and protein kinase activities, respectively. Moreover, our work, for the first time, provides strong evidence suggesting that viperin is a putative radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme. In addition to demonstrating that the antiviral activity of viperin depends on its radical SAM domain, which contains conserved motifs to coordinate [4Fe-4S] cluster and cofactor SAM and is essential for its enzymatic activity, mutagenesis studies also revealed that viperin requires an aromatic amino acid residue at its C terminus for proper antiviral function. Furthermore, although the N-terminal 70 amino acid residues of viperin are not absolutely required, deletion of this region significantly compromises its antiviral activity against HCV. Our findings suggest that viperin represents a novel antiviral pathway that works together with other antiviral proteins, such as ISG20 and PKR, to mediate the IFN response against HCV infection.
 
 
 
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