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Articles by Baby Joseph
Total Records ( 28 ) for Baby Joseph
  Baby Joseph , M.V. Jeevitha and S. Sujatha
  Spirulina is widely used as food because of its rich nutrient contents. They play an important role in gut enzyme activity. The present study determined the digestive tract enzyme activity in spirulina administered Swiss albino mice using a set of biochemical parameters. The experimental group of Swiss albino mice was administered to two different concentrations of spirulina, i.e., 3 and 6% spirulina with 20 days experiment. When the mice were fed with 6% spirulina weight loss has been observed in the experimental animal. Weight loss has been observed about 2.0±0.72 μg mL-1 had been noticed when the Swiss albino mice is treated with concentration of 6% spirulina based probiotic feed. By contrast, weight gain of 5.16±2.68 mg was also observed when the experimental mice fed with 3% probiotic food. These results represented the variation in the enzyme activity after the treatment with experimental feed such as amylase level showed 18.9 μg mL-1 in the foregut and 11.3 μg mL-1 in the hindgut. Lipase level was 45.8 μg mL-1 in foregut and 47.8 μg mL-1 in hindgut. Catalase activity drastically decreased in mice treated with 6% spirulina and enzyme activity of lipase and catalase activity increased in mice treated with 3% spirulina. This study suggests that the spirulina provided in little amount does not show much variation, whereas the spirulina taken in high concentration shows slight changes in the production of digestive enzymes on the Swiss albino mice.
  Baby Joseph and R. Mini Priya
  Endophytes are microorganisms that live inside the host plant tissues which have novel metabolites exhibiting a variety of biological activities against different diseases. In fact, a significant number of interesting natural bioactive compounds have been reported in the last years. The microbial biotransformation process is a novel alternative method to obtain bioactive compounds. In this review, some aspects in the phytochemistry of endophytes producing Phytochemicals and its pharmaceutical effects are discussed.
  Baby Joseph and Vrundha M. Nair
  In developing countries, typhoid fever has a substantial negative socioeconomic impact. Highly invasive organism, Salmonella typhi is the causative agent for this enteric fever. The virulence of Salmonella is associated with the presence of a capsular polysaccharide, Vi antigen. The Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis protein, tviC, of Salmonella typhi whose three dimensional structure was not elucidated till date and its sequence was retrieved from KEGG database. Homology modeling was performed using Swiss model and the resultant structure was verified using WHATCHECK tool. Docking studies were done on the modeled structure with plant derived inhibitors such as allicin, apigenin, caffeic acid, curcumin, eugenol, piperin and luteolin. The hydrogen bond interactions between the protein and ligand were visualized by PYMOL software. Docking studies revealed the e-value for eugenol (-329) is better than the other selected ligands.
  S. Sujatha , Baby Joseph and P.S. Sumi
  This study having following objectives such as to study the biology, nutritional indices and mid gut enzymes response with three different botanical insecticides and to determined the nature of insecticidal action was examined by dermal, oral and contact treatments. As an alternative to synthetic ones, plants have been received much attention as a source of pesticidal active secondary metabolites such as phenolics, terpenoids and alkaloids. The effect of water extracts prepared from the leaves of Ipomea carnea (Linn.) Convolvulacea and Pedalium murex (Linn.) Pedaliacea and Adhatoda vasica (Linn.) Acanthacea on the biology, nutritional indices and digestive enzymes of the polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was investigated. Increased larval and pupal mortality and drastically decreased larval growth were recorded in the experimental extracts treated caterpillars. Feeding efficiency and feacal excrement were also greatly affected. The digestive enzymes profiles were decreased by the plant extract treatments. Furthermore, they were facilitating the active and easy proliferation of the chemicals for the subsequent pathogens of larvae. Among the three application methods tested, oral treatment caused the highest toxicity, followed by topical application and contact treatment. From this study clearly revealed about the active secondary metabolites were arrested or restricted the ecdyseal process during the moulting period of experimental pest. These results suggest that the three plant species tested may have potential for use as natural bio-pesticides.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salinity toxicity is a worldwide agricultural and eco-environmental problem. Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity. Salt stress causes reduction of crop yield and alterations in plant metabolism, including a reduced water potential, ion imbalances and toxicity and sometimes severe salt stress may even threaten survival. Salinity also leads to oxidative stress in plants due to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as the super oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated during metabolic processes damage cellular functions and consequently lead to disease, senescence and cell death. Plants have evolved an efficient defense system by which the ROS is scavenged by antioxidant enzymes. Attempts to reduce oxidative damages under the salt stress conditions have included the manipulation of ROS scavenging enzymes by gene transfer technology. It is important to increase the productivity under stressful environment by developing plants that have well adapted to environmental stress through manipulating antioxidant system. In this study, the rational approaches to develop stress-tolerant plants by gene manipulation of antioxidant enzymes will be introduced to provide solutions for the global food and environmental problems in the 21st century.
  Baby Joseph , P. Sankarganesh , Biby T. Edwin , S. Jusin Raj , M.V. Jeevitha , S.U. Ajisha , Sheeja S. Rajan , R. Mini Priya , D. Jini and Vrundha Nair
  The energy sector is one of the most important sectors in the nation. This sector has contributed to the development and economic well being of the country. But power generation is a difficult task without causing environment pollution. Non-renewable energies like coal, atomic energy and hydrothermal are the current scenario in power generation. Even, when fossil fuels burn they leave by-products that damage both the environment and health, causing misery for millions of people. Currently, science and technology establish novel methods on waste recycling, which provides the way to study the utilization of animal wastes for biogas with low level emission of carbon pollutants and energy production. It putforth some novel ideas on the production of electric energy from chicken litter and biodiesel production from its feathers which has high impact value on renewable bioresource management. This segment of the energy market is likely to grow rapidly and utilities will adapt to the opportunity with challenges. The future of day-lighting as a renewable energy resource applied in buildings is, therefore, very promising and eventually, it assures 100% energy production process with less expensive and helps in high environmental protection.
  Baby Joseph , S. Justin Raj , Biby. T. Edwin and P. Sankarganesh
  Snake venom is a special liquid which is produced by the poison gland of the poisonous snake. Snake venoms generally consist of a complex mixture of substances, each of which may exhibit one or more distinct toxic actions. Many of these proteins are harmless to humans but some are toxic. Snake venoms effects include, anti-blood coagulation, neurotoxicity, mycotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and necrotoxicity. Snake venom is hemolytic and neuropathic-type venom. The hemolysis venom is more effective than the neuropathic-type venom and it will work almost immediately to the prey. According to traditional system of medicine, snake venom is widely used in various disorders in skin and blood. It performs good antitumor activity. This study reports on its traditional, chemical and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer and analgesic activity.
  Baby Joseph , D. Jini and S.U. Ajisha
  Genetically modified plants are simply plants, whose genetic material has been modified. Forests of genetically altered trees and other plants could sequester several billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into long-lived forms of carbon, first in vegetation and ultimately in soil and so help ameliorate global warming. Besides increasing the efficiency of plant’s absorption of light, researchers might be able to genetically alter plants so they send more carbon into their roots--where some may be converted into soil carbon and remain out of circulation for centuries. Other possibilities include altering plants so that they can better withstand the stresses of growing on marginal land and so that they yield improved bioenergy and food crops. Drought resistant plants can be produced by the use of genetic engineering, so that they can withstand in the stressed environment. The genetically altering plants, thereby increasing the efficiency of plant’s absorption of director scattered sunlight; making them send more carbon into their roots where some may be converted into soil carbon and remain out of circulation for centuries; making them better able to withstand the stresses of growing on marginal land, improving their yield, in terms of bioenergy and food crops. A combination of such genomic improvement might enormously increase the amount of carbon that vegetation naturally extracts from air. Such innovations might, in combination, boost substantially the amount of carbon that vegetation naturally extracts from air.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors that may impair crop productivity. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for salinity stress tolerance in crop plants (for food supply) and in forest trees (a central component of the global ecosystem) should be given high research priority in plant biotechnology programs. Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress related genes. Abiotic stresses usually cause protein dysfunction. Maintaining proteins in their functional conformations and preventing the aggregation of non-native proteins are particularly important for cell survival under stress. Cells subjected to salt stress showed a protective response which enabled them to survive. In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the transcriptome to study salt stress either alone or in combination with other abiotic stresses. However, there is no review that highlights the studies conducted to-date on proteomic analysis of salinity stress-responsive proteins in plants. The present review summarizes the effect of salinity in plants and the current initiatives in proteomic research for the analysis of plant salt tolerance. The importance of this review is to improve the salt tolerability of plants by understanding the alterations of proteins in plants.
  Baby Joseph and S. Justin Raj
  The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of curacron on Serum aminotransferases activity (ALT and AST) of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio. Curacron is an organophosphate pesticide and is widely used by the farmers to protect their crops. So every year huge volume of Curacron enters to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of curcuron pesticides and its influence of serum biomarker enzyme (ALT and AST). LC50 of Curacron for Cyprinus carpio has been calculated by the log-dose/probit regression line method and recorded as 0.38 ppm at 96 h. Three sub-lethal concentrations (0.1, 0.01 mL and 0.001 ml L-1) were selected to expose the fish for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Changes in enzyme activity were observed with all concentrations and exposure period. ALT and AST concentrations were significantly higher in the experimental group, compared with the control group. The above results of blood plasma profile indicate a marked cytotoxic and hepatotoxic effect of curacron in Cyprinus carpio.
  Baby Joseph , P. Sankarganesh , Biby T. Edwin and S. Justin Raj
  Endophytic Streptomycetes are the most exploited group in the medicinal and agro based industries. In this review, we correlated recently identified its bioactive compounds with plant chemical structures. Booming the global warm is the important problem to increase the alternative research initiatives for green chemicals. During long genetic co-evaluation with plants Streptomycetes have created novel and interesting chemistry. Their ability to produce plant related chemicals has increased its importance. It also reduces the need of harvesting plants for drug. Specific approaches from ethanobotanical valued plants with medicinal applications could be the key to isolating bioactive compound producing strains.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salinity toxicity is a worldwide agricultural and eco-environmental problem. Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity. Salt stress causes reduction of crop yield and alterations in plant metabolism, including a reduced water potential, ion imbalances and toxicity and sometimes severe salt stress may even threaten survival. Salinity also leads to oxidative stress in plants due to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as the super oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Oxidative stress is one of the major limiting factors in plant productivity. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated during metabolic processes damage cellular functions and consequently lead to disease, senescence and cell death. Plants have evolved an efficient defense system by which the ROS is scavenged by antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), calatase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and Glutathione Reductase (GR). Attempts to reduce oxidative damages under the salt stress conditions have included the manipulation of ROS scavenging enzymes by gene transfer technology. It is important to maintain and/or increase the productivity (photosynthetic capacity) under stressful environment by developing plants that have well adapted to environmental stress through manipulating antioxidant system. In this study, we discuss the role of antioxidant enzymes for salt tolerance in plants and this study will help to improve the tolerability of plants to salt by enhancing the expression of antioxidant enzymes.
  Baby Joseph , Biby T. Edwin , Boby T. Edwin , S. Justin Raj and P. Sankarganesh
  Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMMSCs) are a group of non-hematopoietic cells residing within the bone marrow. These are adhesive cells which can differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate conditions, results in maintaining the homeostasis mechanism. Though extracellular matrix is meant only for MSCs cell adhesion, it has some role in the lineage change. Apart from the extracellular matrix, growth factors play a pivotal role in the morphogenesis. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of BMMSCs, their differentiation potential toward different skeletal tissues (cartilage and bone) and bone tissue engineering and its need.
  Baby Joseph and S. Justin Raj
  Indian traditional medicines based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. The evaluation of these drugs is primarily based on phytochemical, pharmacological properties. plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. In traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as stem bark, root bark aerial roots, vegetative buds, leaves, fruits and latex are used in dysentery, diarrhoea, diabetes leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, dropsy, jaundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fevers, diseases of urino-genital system, scabies, ulcers,wounds, cold, nervous disorders and as tonic. Medicinal plants are popular in indigenious system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homoeopathy and is used for its hepatoprotective, antitumour, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a comparative study on its properties of five medicinally important plants.
  Baby Joseph , S. Nightingale Sheeba , S. Sujatha and K. Thanalakshmi
  Antibiograms are often taken into account to define a rational selection of an empirical antimicrobial therapy for human internal fluids of treating patients with hospital-acquired infections. This study has performed a paired comparison between the antibiogram constructed with laboratory-based data and that formed with data subjected to prior clinical validation. Hence, the study was designed to determine the antibiogram of the various species of resistant pathogenic bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infection on human internal ascitic fluids. Cumulative resistance rates were estimated in parallel at the laboratory with the whole data and at the infection control department with data subjected to prior clinical validation. Results shows that no significant differences survived (p>0.05) between the percentage of isolates resistant from the infection-based system and laboratory-based system for all antimicrobial-resistant organisms studied, except methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus species. The mean difference in percentage resistance was higher from the infection-based system than the laboratory-based system for S. aureus (mean difference + 8%, p<0.001) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (mean difference, + 9%, p<0.001). Overall, hospital antibiograms reflected susceptibility patterns among isolates associated with hospital-acquired infections. Thus, in conclusion, the Laboratory-based data underestimates the frequency of several major resistant organism in-patients with hospital-acquired infection. Previous clinical validation of the individual susceptibility reports seems to be a suitable strategy to get more reliable data.
  Baby Joseph and S. Justin Raj
  Modern agricultural practices result in indiscriminate use of various agrochemicals, which usually enter into the aquatic environment. The use of agrochemicals in the field has the potential to change the aquatic medium, affecting the tolerance limit of aquatic fauna and flora, as well as creating danger to the ecosystem. These agrochemicals adversely affect the non-target organisms, especially plankton and fish. The present study reports the acute and sublethal toxicity of pesticides on plasma protein, acetylcholinesterase, hormones, histopathology, changes in gill, ventillatory frequency and stress protein level of freshwater fishes. The alterations of the hormonal levels may be used as a potential biomarker and also can establish the ability of endocrine tissues to respond to their appropriate releasing factors. Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are detected in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that various stressors transiently increase production of HSPs as protection against harmful insults. Increased levels of HSPs occur after environmental stresses, infection, normal physiological processes and gene transfer.
  S. Justin Raj and Baby Joseph
  Experiment was conducted on fish, Oreochromis mossambicus to study the effect of acetamiprid on tissue biomarker lactate dehydrogenase. Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide and it is used by the farmers to protect their crops. This pesticide residue reaches to the aquatic ecosystem by many ways and affects the aquatic fauna. Lethal Concentration (LC50) of acetamiprid for O. mossambicus has been calculated by probit analysis and recorded as 5.99 ppm at 96 h. Chronic exposure shows increased activity of LDH in liver, brain and gill tissues during all the exposure periods when compared with the control. This significant increase in enzyme activity was observed due to toxic effect of acetamiprid. Long term exposure of organisms to pesticides means a continuous health hazard for the fish population and it is on high risk by consuming these toxicated fishes.
  S. Justin Raj and Baby Joseph
  The study analyze the effect of pesticide-acetamiprid on protein content and carbohydrate content of liver, brain and gill tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus. Acetamiprid is an neonicotinoid pesticide and is used by the farmers to protect their crops. Pesticides may enter water bodies as a result of spray drift and leaching from the soil in concentrations, which may exert adverse effects on fish populations. Lethal concentration (LC50) of acetamiprid for O. mossambicus has been calculated by probit analysis and recorded as 5.99 ppm at 96 h. Chronic exposure shows decreased protein and carbohydrate content in liver, brain and gill tissues during all the exposure periods when compared with the control. This significant decrease in protein and carbohydrate content was observed due to toxic effect of acetamiprid. Long term exposure of organisms to pesticides means a continuous health hazard for the fish population and it is on high risk by consuming these toxicated fishes.
  Justin Raj and Baby Joseph
  Background and Objective: Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide and it is used by the farmers to protect their crops. This pesticide residue reaches to the aquatic ecosystem by many ways and affects the aquatic fauna. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of pesticide-acetamiprid on electrophoretic protein patterns of liver, brain and gill tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus (O. mossambicus). Materials and Methods: Lethal concentration (LC50) of acetamiprid for O. mossambicus has been calculated by probit analysis. Sublethal or safe level concentrations were derived from 96 h LC50. In the present study 1/15 of the 96 h LC50 were selected as sublethal concentration and the fishes were exposed to this concentration for a period of 7 and 14 days. Results: The electrophoretogram of 7th and 14th day exposure represents the decrease in the intensity of liver, brain and gill protein subunits and increase in protein bands due to acetamiprid toxicity, when compared to control. Studies revealed that due to the toxic effect of the pesticides the protein bands get denatured, as a result there was a decrease in the intensity of protein bands and there was an increase in new protein bands due to the enhancement of stress proteins. Conclusion: The alterations in electrophoretic protein patterns observed in various tissues of the experimental fish could serve as sensitive biochemical indicators of acetamiprid pollution, which might help in aquatic management. It may be concluded that long term exposure to acetamiprid creates a continuous health hazard for Oreochromis mossambicus.
  Baby Joseph and Vrundha M. Nair
  The key significance of this study is the development of a database termed as Oncvir. The resource is developed using Hypertext Preprocessor, Hyper Text Markup Language and JavaScript as front-end and MySQL as backend. OncVir mainly in-houses information on nucleotide sequence, protein sequence and protein structure information’s of human oncoviruses. Oncoviruses are those categories of viruses which assist in the immortalization of the cancer cells. The key classification factor of these viruses is its genetic material either DNA or RNA. OncVir is a database which comprehends the information of human oncogenic viruses such as Hepatitis B Virus, Human Papilloma Virus; Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, Hepatitis C virus, Human T-lymphotropic virus and Human Cytomegalovirus. This knowledgebase includes information from literature and other public available databases. The database is accessible to keyword searching via., simple and advanced options. It integrates about 215 nucleotide sequence records, 158 protein sequence records and 68 structural information associated with oncoviruses. It also facilitates additional facility to users to submit their sequence and structural data using tools such as OncSeq and OncTer, respectively. Moreover, additional information including description of viruses with illustrations, overview about the database, new events and updates are also available. In short Oncvir serves as a single access point for substantial and multitudinous information about human oncoviruses.
  S. Sujatha and Baby Joseph
  This research mainly focused the objective is to study the effect of tapioca based oligidic diet and its effect on growth and reproductive parameters in tobacco caterpillar larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricious). These results indicated an artificial diet for mass rearing of the tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) from the neonate to adult stage was developed at 27±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16:8 h scoto/photo-phase regime. The impact of a tapioca-based artificial diet on the developmental rate, life history parameters and fertility was examined over five consecutive generations for the Spodoptera litura armyworm Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a highly polyphagous pest of many agricultural crops. The study showed that when fed the tapioca-based artificial diet during larval stage, larval and pupal developmental period, percentage of pupation, pupal weight, emergence rate of male and female, longevity, fecundity and hatching were non-significantly different than that of the control agar-based artificial diet. Moreover, the cost to rear on tapioca-based diet approached 2.13 times less than the cost of rearing on the agar-based artificial diet. The mean biological parameters based on rearing of ten continuous generations showed higher pupation (67.0±3.2), emergence (77.0±5.6) and fecundity (234.2±50.1 eggs) as compared to the most preferred natural food, castor leaf whose respective recorded values are 80, 75, 60% and 480 eggs. The artificial diet developed is suitable for mass rearing S. litura successfully throughout the year for laboratory and field experimentation as well as for commercial production of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses.
  Baby Joseph , Biby T. Edwin , Boby T. Edwin , P. Sankarganesh and S. Justin Raj
  Biomaterials are one of the active research areas in tissue engineering due to its high demand in regenerative medicine. And it plays a crucial role in mesenchymal stem cells therapy. A number of biomaterials and their combinations are available for the production of artificial extracellular matrix for skeletal repair like demineralised bone matrixes, polymers, bioactive glasses, coral, bioactive ceramics but unfortunately the design of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering presents several difficulties. The focus of this article is a brief narration of commonly used biomaterials for scaffold making for bone tissue engineering.
  Baby Joseph and S. Justin Raj
  The experiment was conducted on fish, Cyprinus carpio to study the effect of curacron on serum biomarker (LDH). Curacron is a organophosphate pesticide and is used by the farmers to protect their crops. This pesticide reaches to the aquatic ecosystem by many ways and affects the aquatic fauna. LC50 of Curacron for Cyprinus carpio has been calculated by the log-dose/probit regression line method and recorded as 0.38 ppm at 96 h. Three sub-lethal concentrations (0.1, 0.01 mL and 0.001 ml L-1) were selected to expose the fish for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Changes in enzyme activity were observed with all concentrations and exposure period. Lactate concentrations were significantly lower in the experimental group, compared with the control group. The above results of blood plasma profile indicate a marked cytotoxic and hepatotoxic effect of curacron in fishes.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity, affects large terrestrial areas of the world; the need to produce salt-tolerant crops is evident. Programmed Cell Death (PCD) plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the adverse environment such as salinity. Salinity that causes PCD in plant cells and is a substantial constraint to crop production. Two main approaches are being used to improve salt tolerance: (1) the exploitation of natural genetic variations, either through direct selection in stressful environments or through mapping quantitative trait loci and subsequent marker-assisted selection and (2) the generation of transgenic plants to introduce novel genes or to alter expression levels of the existing genes to affect the degree of salt stress tolerance. Cells subjected to salt stress showed a protective response which enabled them to survive. In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the transcriptome to study salt stress either alone or in combination with other abiotic stresses. However, there is no review that highlights the studies conducted to-date on salinity induced PCD in plants: Challenges and opportunities for salt tolerant plants. We believe that the present summary and perspective on salinity induced PCD in plants will provide a backbone to enable further studies on PCD occurs by salt stress and help to develop salt-tolerant plants through biotechnological strategies.
  Baby Joseph , Biby T. Edwin and S. Sujatha
  Plerrotus sajor-caju is an edible mushroom that highly appreciated and has a commercial potential in many countries. P. sajor-caju was cultivated and with the help of four altered substrates. This study shows that the effect of four different kinds of supplementary diets, mycelium linear growth, quantity of sporocarp, moisture content level yield, chemical constituents and chemical composition of fruiting bodies were estimated. The mycelium linear growth was 1.9, 1.7 and 1.6 mm day-1 with no significant differences at level of 10% bran addition to sawdust, soybean straw, sugar cane bagasse and rice straw, respectively. The data declare that moisture content of fruit bodies ranged between 87.63 and 90.26% and no significant differences were detected between those grown on sawdust, soybean straw and sugarcane bagasse. The obtained data show that soybean, contained significantly highest amount being (281. 45 g) followed by sawdust being 216.90 g while rice straw sugar cane bagasse recorded significantly lower values being 38.60 and 30.00, respectively.
  Baby Joseph , D. Pradeep and S. Sujatha
  This study was carried out to evaluate the haematology and histology of the three main organs such as liver, kidney and intestine from the polluted water (Parvathyputhanar river) and fresh water (Karmana river). The release of heavy metals into the aquatic environment causes water pollution problems the blood cells although, liver, kidney and intestine like organs changes demonstrated by microtomy technique of histopathology. Haematological observation between fresh water and polluted water living A. testudineus: Haematocrit (PCV) was found decreased to 16%. A similar reduction was also observed in the haemoglobin content (4.8 g/100 mL). For instance, the haematological variation indicates in the Parvathiputhanar fish is due to this canal possessed slightly on the alkaline (7.1-8.5). Differential blood cells count also affected and glycogen levels were elevated in the polluted water living fish compared with fresh water A. testudineus. When compared these two different water bodies such as Parvathyputhanar and Karamana (polluted and unpolluted) collected fish A. testudiensis shows necrosis of tubular epithelium, cloudy swelling of epithelial cells of renal tubules, narrowing of the tubular lumen and contraction of the glomerulus and expansion of space inside the Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues than Karamanayar river. Moreover, hepatic lesions in fish living with Parvathyputhanar are characterized by hypertrophy of hepatocytes, cloudy degeneration, congestion, karyolysis, dilatation of sinusoids and focal necrosis. From this study focusing histopathological findings suggest the acidic and other heavy metal impurities caused severe damages as well as alterations occurred into the internal organs of fish and consequently change the physiological status. While, the polluted Parvathyputhanar River utilized by a peoples these findings highlight the need for adequate water treatment.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the five leading causes of death in the world. Herbal treatment for diabetes has been a part of traditional medicine for thousands of years. The natural herbs for diabetes treatment focus on lowering blood sugar and reducing the damaging effects of the disease. Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. The natural herbs for diabetes treatment focus on lowering blood sugar and reducing the damaging effects of the disease. Herbal supplements for diabetes should be a part of a holistic approach to treatment that addresses proper nutrition, a good exercise program, and continued monitoring of blood glucose levels. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. This review focuses on Indian Herbal plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India.
  Baby Joseph , S. Sujatha and J.R. Anusha
  The aim of this study was to identify the antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activity of the Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) root extract with five diferent solvents. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of extraction from Hemidesmus indicus roots on five different solvents activity against the pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms also larvae of the Culex qinquifasciatus mosquito. H. indicus (L.) is one of the plants used in Ayurveda for several remedies it belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. The experimental roots were tested for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity against twelve human pathogenic bacteria microorganisms using standard disc diffusion method. Moreover, the methanol and petroleum ether extracts were active against most of the tested organisms as they showed potential phytochemical constituents. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with their respective reference antibiotics as Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs). Apart from petroleum ether, all other solvent extracts such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extract showed significant results. Among the 12 bacterial species maximum inhibition zone was 16.00±0.18, 10.65±0.19 and 16.3±0.20 observed the following bacteria such as E. coli, P. mirabilis and S. typhimurium respectively. The larvicidal effect of aqueous extracts of H. indicus roots were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at the concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% up to three days also after two days, 100% larval mortality has been observed at 5% concentration of root extract with aqueous solution (dist.water). From this results clearly showed solvent extracts of H. indicus (Linn.) root could be act as an antibacterial as well as larvicidal activity.
 
 
 
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