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Articles by B.Y. Kamaruzzaman
Total Records ( 27 ) for B.Y. Kamaruzzaman
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and M.C. Ong
  Two 20 cm sediment cores were collected with a D-section corer in the Kemaman-Chukai mangrove forest and analyzed for 210Pbex (excess 210Pb) in order to understand the sedimentation pattern. The activities of 210Pb along with the 208Po tracer were measured by Alpha Spectrometry on a silicon surface barrier detector connected to a multi channel analyzer. Sedimentation rates were determined applying 210Pb dating method and found to vary between 0.94-1.11 cm year-1. The highest accumulation rates were recorded near the river mouth and the lowest rates at the downstream. Assuming that the sedimentation rate values are accurate, this implies that the sediments in the upper 100 cm at Kemaman-Chukai mangrove forest were deposited during the past 90 years ago.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong , M.S. Noor Azhar , S. Shahbudin and K.C.A. Jalal
  Surface sediments collected from seven estuarine mangrove forests of Terengganu region (100 sampling points) were anaylzed for Pb, Cu and Zn using the sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn were 10.5±7.12 mg g-1 dry weights, 31.1± 16.5 mg g-1 dry weights and 20.8±13.3 mg g-1 dry weights, respectively. The statistical analysis of Pearson correlation matrix has proved that there is a significant relationship between the metal concentration and the grain size. The concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn decreased with the decrease of mean size particle, suggesting their association with the fine fraction of the sediments. In this study, Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The analysis suggests that all studied elements were considered to be dominantly terrigenous in origin. Data obtained also provides a scientific discovery and data for a better understanding and proper management of the mangrove forests of Terengganu.
  S. Hasrizal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , I. Sakri , M.C. Ong and M.S. Noor Azhar
  Problem statement: The distribution of organic carbon in the surface sediment is a crucial indicator for current productivity in the ocean especially in the nearshore area. The difference of organic carbon in the surface sediment reflects the influence of current movement on the bottom sediment. Approach: This study was carried out to oversee the difference of organic carbon distribution during pre and post-monsoon seasons. For the purpose of the study, 42 surface sediments in the Terengganu near shore area were collected and determined for organic carbon by using the wet dichromate acid method. Results: The concentration of organic carbon was significantly different between the seasons showing a relatively higher content during pre-monsoon seasons. In this study, the average concentration of organic carbon in pre-monsoon was 1.14±0.29% and varied from 0.60-1.80%. Meanwhile during post-monsoon seasons, the average concentration of organic carbon was slightly lower to 0.82±0.23% and ranged from 0.24-1.32%. Conclusion: Generally, the average concentration of organic carbon in South China Sea was low compared to the occurrence in riverine environment as well as the mangrove environment.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John , K. Zaleha and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort to assess the utility of 650 bp Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members horseshoe crabs (Family: xiphosura) with closely related sister taxa was made. A total of 33 sequences were extracted from National Center for Biotechnological Information (NCBI) which include horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata), beetles (Class: Insecta), common crabs (Class: Melacostraca) and scorpion (Class: Arachnida) sequences. Constructed phylogram through comprehensive dry lab methodology using advanced software predictive tools showed that beetles are closely related with horseshoe crabs than common crabs (Class: Melacostraca). It was interesting to note that terrestrial Scorpion (Class: Arachnida) were distantly related to horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata). Phylogram and observed Genetic Distance (GD) data were also revealed that Limulus polyphemus was distantly related to all the other horseshoe crab species. Tachypleus gigas was closely related with Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than with Tachypleus tridentatus. The observed mean Genetic Distance (GD) value was higher in 3rd codon position in all the selected group of organisms. Among the horseshoe crabs high GC content was observed in L. polyphemus (38.32%) and lowest was observed in T. tridentatus (32.35%). We conclude that COI sequencing (barcoding) could be used in identifying and delineating evolutionary relatedness with closely related species.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Mohd Zahir , B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  A study was conducted to determine the bioaccumulation of some essential and non-essential heavy metals by the soft tissue of Perna viridis (Green mussel) collected from Pekan, Pahang during November 2009. A total of fifty individuals of Green lipped mussel P. viridis (Family: Mytilidae) were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) concentration were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The observed mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Pb and Cd in the soft edible tissue of P. viridis was 576.45±87.78, 45.54±8.75, 19.05±4.12, 17.85±2.28, 0.47±0.14 and 0.3±0.06 μg g-1, respectively. The bioaccumulation of metals in the soft tissue flowed in Fe>Zn>Cu >Co>Pb>Cd order indicating that the essential heavy metal accumulates in faster rate than non-essential metals. Comparison with earlier studies showed that Fe and Cu bioaccumulation level was higher in samples from Pekan area with average of 576.45 and 19.05 μg g-1, respectively. All the other metals concentration was lower in the soft tissue of green mussel indicating comparatively lower heavy metal contamination in the Pekan, Pahang compared with other coasts.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Siti Waznah , M.C. Ong , S. Shahbudin and K.C.A. Jalal
  The percentage organic carbon content of 62 bottom estuarine sediment in Pahang river estuary were analyzed using the wet dichromate oxidation method. In this study, the organic carbon distribution ranged from 0.09 to 2.05%. The high concentration can be found near the Pahang river mouth while the low concentration occurred at upstream. The sediment particle size at the same transects were also measured with the dry sieving and laser diffraction method. The average concentration of organic carbon was 0.88% while the average grain size was 2.44 φ. In this study, the carbon organic showed a significant relationship with the mean size (p<0.05) with the organic carbon content increase with the increase of mean size values.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Siti Waznah , M.S. Mohd Zahir , M.C. Ong , S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , Z. Rina Sharlinda , A.T. Shuhada , B. Akbar John , B. Joseph , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  Bottom sediments from 62 stations at Pahang river-estuary were analyzed for the concentrations of Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn) and Cobalt (Co). Heavy metal concentrations were analyzed by using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average dry weight concentrations of Cr, Mn and Co were 62.80±20.04, 416.21±127.41 and 7.93±3.25 μg g-1, respectively. The observed concentrations of the studied metals were significantly higher near the estuary and declining as the sampling points were further away from the estuary. The Enrichment Factors (EFs) were calculated and all elements showed metal contamination was predominantly of terrigenous in origin.
  S. Shahbudin , Z. Hafifi Hafiz , B. Akbar John , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Present study was conducted to determine the propagation and biodiversity of corals on artificial reefs at Teluk Kalong and Pasir Akar, Malaysia to check the feasibility of artificial reef to rehabilitate natural reef ecosystems and to provide artificial habitat for marine organisms. Two types of artificial reef deployed in these areas were Dome Reef and EnviroReef which were developed by the Dorken Company. Based on the results obtained, coral distribution was higher at Pasir Akar compared to Teluk Kalong. The Shannon diversity index (H’) and evenness index (EH’) of coral at Teluk Kalong were 0.6425 and 0.1766, respectively while the Shannon diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of coral at Pasir Akar were 1.7410 and 0.3247, respectively. Overall, 2 species were found and identified at Teluk Kalong and 10 species were at Pasir Akar with Seriatopora hystrix as the dominant species at both the stations. Coral distribution was higher on Dome Reef compared to EnviroReef. The diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of EnviroReef were 0.5359 and 0.1284 respectively while it was 2.2192 and 0.4274, respectively in Dome Reef. A total of 3 and 9 species were found and identified from the EnviroReef and Dome Reef, respectively with Seriatopora hystrix being the dominant in both the reef structures. We conclude that both artificial reefs structures were suitable as habitat for coral propagation.
  K. Zaleha , I. Hazwani , H. Siti Hamidah , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Tachypleus gigas (Muller) the Southeast Asian horseshoe crab, is found to nest on sandy beaches in Malaysia, thus biological information about survival of this living fossil become crucial. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of salinity on duration to maturation and hatching success of their eggs. The effect on size, morphological changes and growth of the hatched larvae was also investigated. Eggs of T. gigas were collected from the newly nests made on breeding beach of Pekan, Pahang (Lat 3° 56.915’N; Long 103°21.933’ E) in Peninsular Malaysia. Triplicates of five different salinities (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ppt) were chosen for the experiments. A vernier caliper was used for size measurement under a stereo microscope. The morphological changes in prosomal width and length, body length, telson length, opisthosoma length and total length were recorded. Salinity range of between 25 and 35 ppt could be an optimal incubation condition. No egg hatched at salinity 15 and 20 ppt. Highest percentage of hatching was found at 30 ppt (91.11±5.57%). Hatching also occurred at 25 and 35 ppt with 65.56±1.73% and 74.4±2.31% success rate, respectively. The shortest molting time occurred at 15 ppt (25 days after hatching). Total size changes in larvae were also highest at 15 ppt but lowest at 35 ppt. There was no mortality in larvae maintained in all treatments. Early larval development would also affected by the salinity stress but its seemed tolerable.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong and K.C.A. Jalal
  Heavy metal (Cu, Zn and Pb) concentrations in the muscle, gill and stomach of fish species from Mengabang Telipot River, Terengganu were measured with a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were also investigated. The average concentration of Cu, Zn and Pb was 13.39, 19.88 and 0.30 mg kg-1 dry wt., respectively. A marked relationship between metal contents of the studied species was observed. Generally, the mean concentrations of all the elements were relatively high in stomach, followed by gills and lowest in muscle. The positive relationship of these elements with fish length and weight were observed, suggesting the accumulation of these elements were occurred in the fish. Overall, metal levels found were lower than the international standards of reference and the examined fish were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong , S.Z. Rina and B. Joseph
  In this study, the concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in muscle, gills and stomach of six fish species caught from Pahang river estuary. These metals concentration were measured by ICP-MS in order to assess the fish contamination with these metals. This study showed that all catfishes (Arius sp.) presented the highest metals content. Tissue analysis revealed that the stomach accumulated the highest level of these metals. Based on the results, metal concentration in the edible part of the examined fish (muscle) were in the safety permissible levels for human consumption.
  K. Zaleha , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John and M.C. Ong
  Balok, Pekan and Penor have been observed to be nesting grounds of the horseshoe crab. Present study was conducted to assess the metal concentration in sediment of horseshoe crab the nesting ground along the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. Acid Digestion was performed using (HF, HNO3, HCl, EDTA and H3BO4) before determining the actual concentration of heavy metals using ICPMS. 2-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the results. In all stations, Pb was in highest concentration (40.36 μg g-1) followed by Cu (13.44 μg g-1) and the least concentrated metal in the nesting ground was Cd with the high concentration of (0.26 μg g-1). EF values showed that Pb is of anthropogenic source and Cd is of minimum enrichment. Although the levels of Pb are low and regarded harmless to the horseshoe crab, the fear of it affecting those who consume the eggs as well as the crab is still in consideration.
  C. Prasanna Kumar , B. Akbar John , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Cultivable marine bacteria associated with the sponge Hyattella cribriformis (Hyatt, 1877) was studied through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These marine bacterial colonies produced on Zobell Marine agar plates were distinguished based on phenotypic characters viz., colony morphology and pigmentations of the individual colonies. The extracted DNA from the individual bacterial isolates was PCR amplified using universal 16S primers and subjected to DNA sequencing. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Tool) analysis finds that Vibrio diazotrophicus, Bacillus subtilis, B. firmus, Thalassomonas agarivorans, Oleiphilus messinensis, Planococcus maritimus and Brevundimonas vesicularis are the culturable marine bacteria associated with the sponge Hyattella cribriformis. The phylogram constructed clearly delineated the bacterial isolates into its corresponding phylum. The cultivable bacterial density of Hyattella cribriformis was found to be 65x10-5 CFU mL-1. Submitted sequences in NCBI were assigned with accession numbers (FJ834327, FJ834328, FJ834329, FJ845392, FJ845393, FJ845394 and FJ845395). It could be concluded that, application of 16S rRNA sequencing approach would yield novel insights into the diversity of bacteria associated with sponges and hence would help in exploring the commercial importance and their industrial applications.
  M.B. Hossain , S. Ahmed , M.F. Rahman , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , K.C.A. Jalal and S.M.N. Amin
  Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric System (LCMSMS) method was developed and validated in shrimp matrix for determination of nitrofuran metabolites in the laboratory of fish inspection and quality control, Department of Fisheries, Matshya Bhaban, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This confirmatory method was used for testing samples for residues of the metabolites of the following nitrofuran compounds, furazolidone (3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AOZ); furaltadone (5-methyl-morpholino-3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AMOZ); nitrofurazone (semicarbazide, SEM) and nitrofurantoin (1-aminohydantoin, AHD) in shrimp. The data were generated (3 levels and seven replicates per level) on each of three days for shrimp. The mean recoveries from the tissues were 88-110%, the decision limits (CCα) were 0.12-0.23 ppb and the detection capabilities (CCα) 0.21-0.38 ppb. CCα and CCβ were calculated using the procedure set out in ISO Guide 11843. Nevertheless, CCα value for all nitrofuran metabolites can be investigated and meet the specified easily met the specified EU MRPL of 1 μg kg-1 ranged from 0.12-0.23 μg kg-1 and suitable for routine quality control operations.
  G. Iyyapparajanarasimapallavan , P. Sampath Kumar , C. Prasanna Kumar , K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and B. Akbar John
  The distribution and abundance of the gelatinous zooplankton namely hydromedusae, scyphomedusae, siphonophore, ctenophore, salps, doliolids, appendicularians and chaetognaths were investigated in two seasons at seven stations in East Tamil Nadu coast, India. The occurrences of gelatinous zooplankton were observed to be more in summer than in winter. However, the composition of different species in each group varied from all the stations and seasons. Apart from the individual variation in seasonal distribution, most of the species appeared to be cosmopolitan in the Indian waters. A total of 34 species from summer and 17 species from winter were recorded during the present study. The hydromedusae were dominant in both the seasons of the study period. Ephyrae of the scyphomedusae were also noticed in both the seasons.
  K. Zaleha , B. Ibrahim , B. Akbar John and B.Y. Kamaruzzaman
  Recent investigations on harpacticoid copepods have demonstrated their higher nutritional values compared to Artemia and rotifer. Nevertheless, studies on the potential use of tropical harpacticoid copepods as live feed in aquaculture are still limited. The present study was carried out to compare the generation time between selected harpacticoid species cultured in laboratory condition as an early step to choose a potential live feed for aquaculture practices. Some estuarine species of harpacticoids were isolated from Merchang river mouth, an estuary of the South China Sea in Terengganu and undergone trial culture procedure. Three species (Paradactylopodia oculata, Schizopera knabeni and Robertsonia knoxi) were successfully adapted to the laboratory condition thus their generation time were recorded. Copepod samples were cultured under controlled laboratory condition at temperature 25±1°C and salinity 27±1 ppt for 40 days and fed with 0.1 mL of baker’s yeast (0.02 g/L/day). The mean generation time (day) was different for each species where P. oculata showed the long generation time (17.19±4.74 days) followed by S. knabeni (10.19±3.51 days) and R. knoxi (8.93±1.00 days). The species with short generation times could be a better choice for fish larval rearing and hatchery activity due to the early time of nauplii production and hence we suggest the R. knoxi could be used as a potential live feed (on the basis of their generation time) in aquaculture practices.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar , K.C.A. Jalal and S. Shahbudin
  A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the different level of accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in 21 days fingerlings tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The concentration of these metals in the gills was detected through Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). It was observed that the tilapia fingerlings can accumulate up to 3000 ppb of Zn after 21 days of exposure. The accumulation rate of Cu at 7 to 14 days was between 0.01 to 0.02 μg kg-1 while steady increase (0.06 ppb) was detected when exposure period extended to next 7 days. Meanwhile, gradual increase in Zn accumulation was observed at all the time. The fish had accumulated up to 142 μg kg-1 of Pb at the highest concentration in 30 days of exposure proved that there is a elevated three fold increase in Pb uptake compared with first ten and 20 days of exposure. It was also proven from this study that fishes exposed to longer period with minimal concentration tend to accumulate less heavy metal in gills since the heavy metals are transported to other parts of the body.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong and A.H. Khali
  Muscle, stomach and gill from four dominant fish species, Mytus nemurus, Pristolepis fasciata, Ompok bimaculatus and Osteochilus hasseltii, caught from Bebar peat swamp forest river were analyzed for mercury (Hg). The concentration of Hg was measured with a fast and sensitive Flow Injector Mercury Spectrometer (FIMS). The average Hg concentration of all species caught was 0.169 μg g-1 dry weights, lower than a limit for human consumption recommended by the World Health Organization, 0.5 μg g-1 dry weights. The mean concentration of Hg was relatively high in stomach (0.28x0.12 μg g-1 dry weights) followed by gill (0.17x0.06 μg g-1 dry weights) and lowest in muscle (0.05x0.02 μg g-1 dry weights). The positive relationship of Hg with fish length and weight suggesting that the accumulation of Hg were formed in the fish.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong , K. Zaleha and S. Shahbudin
  Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 μg g-1 dry weights, Cd with 0.58 μg g-1 dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 μg g-1 dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 μg g-1 dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Zahir , B. Akbar John , A. Siti Waznah , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  An effort to analyze selected heavy metal accumulation by the razor clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur was conducted on January to April 2010. A total of fifty individuals of Razor clam Solen brevis were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganase (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) Concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Among the metals Fe occurred in elevated concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam followed by Zn. Cd was found to be in least concentration in the sample. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the soft tissue were 415.2±56.52, 87.74±11.85, 18.71±2.10, 8.64±1.75, 0.67±0.29 and 1.61±0.45 μg g-1 dw, respectively indicating that the bioaccumulation of essential metals in the soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals. Metal accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam followed Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd order in present study. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was lower than the permissible limit recommended by National and international standards proved that this species could be utilized for human consumption.
  S. Murugan , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , C. Prasanna Kumar , K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and B. Akbar John
  A detailed study on the length weight relationship of Mugil cephalus in Vellar estuary was conducted between January 2004 and December 2005. Statistical tests such as regression coefficient ‘b’ and ‘a’ tests were performed to compare the b values of males and females from the hypothetical value of 3. The b value of male (2.7658) differed significantly from the hypothetical value of 3 (t = -2.8586<0.05), the b value of female (2.8586) did not differ significantly from the hypothetical value (t = -1.0158>0.05). Values of both males and females were less than 3 which proved the negative allometry growth pattern.
  M.F. Rahman , K.C.A. Jalal , Nasrin Jahan , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , R. Ara and A. Arshad
  Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives.
  K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Arshad , R. Ara and M.F. Rahman
  A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H’) was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30°C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm-1), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L-1), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L-1), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 μg L-1), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L-1), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L-1), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L-1). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the presence of several outskirts could be alarming for the sustainable development of fish and other aquatic organisms in Kuantan estuary in the long run.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , N.T. Shuhada , B. Akbar , S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , M.C. Ong , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  Surface sediment samples were collected from 5 different zones of the Langkawi coastal waters, Malaysia to determine the concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) by using the sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of heavy metals was compared with the world average concentration of shale values. It was found that the total concentration of Pb was between 12.25 and 71.38 μg g-1 dw with mean concentration value of 41.87±7.30 μg g-1 dw which was two fold higher than the average shale value (20 μg g-1). Statistical analysis showed that the significant variation in Pb concentration between different sampling stations (p<0.05). Copper (Cu) concentration was ranged between 0.40 and 30.95 μg g-1 dw with mean concentration of 11.19±5.2 μg g-1 dw which was lower than the average shale value (45 μg g-1 dw). Enrichment Factor (EF) showed that source of Pb concentration in the study area was partially due to anthropogenic activities and the source of Cu was dominantly from terrigenous in origin. Results of the analysis showed that a coastal area of Langkawi is facing moderate metal pollution with increased rate of deposition.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , Z. Rina , B. Akbar John and K.C.A. Jalal
  Now-a-days, bioaccumulation of toxic metals in aquatic animals causes serious threats to the human health when they are consumed. Thus the detection of toxic elemental concentration in aquatic flora and fauna has attracted various researches to determine their toxic levels in organism’s edible parts. Upon considering this issue, the accumulation of some heavy metals such as Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in Muscle and gill tissues were determined in commercially important fishes. Five species (Nemipterus japonicas, Chirocentrus dorab, Lutjanus sebae, Otolithes ruber and Pampus argenteus) were collected from south west coast of Malaysia, covering 3 states (Johor, Melaka and Negeri Sembilan). Metal concentration was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In general, higher metal accumulation was detected in gill tissues than the muscle tissue of selected fishes while Hg concentration was higher in muscle tissues except in Pampus argenteus. Similar observation was noted in As and Pb accumulation in N. japonicus and L. sebae, respectively. Hg and As concentration was higher in P. argenteus muscle and gill tissues on the other hand higher Pb and Zn level was noted in Muscle tissues L. sebae. Higher concentration of Pb and Zn were detected in gill tissues of L. sebae and O. ruber, respectively. There was no species specific differences in metal accumulation were noted (p<0.05). It was also observed that essential metal level in fish samples were greater than non-essential toxic metals. The metal concentrations found in this study were lower than the national and international standard maximum permissible limits for human consumption. Therefore, no public health problem would be raised in the consumption of these fishes.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John , M.H. Aqilah Megat and K. Zaleha
  An attempt was made to determine the various heavy metal accumulative concentrations in different body parts of horseshoe crab [Tachypleus gigas (Muller, 1785)]. Heavy metal accumulation levels were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Highest mean concentration (μg g-1 wet weight) of iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) was observed in gill tissue (1336.73±2.08 ppm), apodeme (921.11±8.12 ppm), Gut (129.94±13.8 ppm) and apodeme (4.16±0.54 ppm) samples, respectively while lowest concentrations of metals were observed in gut (Fe = 556.61 ppm), mouth (Zn = 605.36 ppm), leg tissue (Cu = 60.85 ppm) and leg tissues (Cd = 2.12 ppm). Results clearly showed that bioaccumulation of essential metal concentration in all the analyzed body parts were higher than non-essential heavy metals with the flow of metals in Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd order. Statistical predictions revealed that bioaccumulation of metals were not significantly influenced by weight, total length and carapace width of the animal. The heavy metal accumulations in samples were higher than the national and international permissible limit range hence not suitable for human consumption.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , K.Y.S. Willison and M.C. Ong
  The vertical profiles of 230Thexcess and 230Thexcess/232Th in a sediment core have been used to determine the sedimentation rates of Terengganu River estuary, Malaysia. Applying the 230Thexcess and 230Thexcess/232Th method, U and Th isotopic involved complete dissolution of the samples, followed by separation on anion exchange, average sedimentation rates of 1.02 and 1.01 cm year-1 were obtained, respectively. The results of the accretion rate obtained from the both methods are consistent with average sedimentation rates of 1.01 cm year-1. Assuming that the accretion rate values are accurate, this may imply that the sediments at the deepest core at 14 cm were deposited during the last 14.2 years ago.
 
 
 
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