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Articles by B.O. Esonu
Total Records ( 6 ) for B.O. Esonu
  S.U.O. Onyeagocha , N.C. Ehirim , C.A. Emenyonu , C.S. Onyemauwa , F.O. Nwosu , D.O. Ohajianya , C.C. Eze , G.A. Anyanwu , N.N.O. Oguoma and B.O. Esonu
  The profitability, determinants of the viability and resource use efficiency of broiler farmers in Akwa Ibom state, South-South, Nigeria were evaluated in this study after the incidence of Avian-flu pandemic in parts of Nigeria. Multi-stage, random sampling technique was employed in selecting 72 broiler farmers comprising backyard poultry, semi-commercial and commercial broiler farmers. Cost route approach was used in data collection. The data were analyzed using cost and return analysis, financial and efficiency ratios; as well as descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the analysis indicated that the broiler enterprise was profitable although production was at low capacity. The variable cost constituted about 83% of the total cost and feed alone made up about 60% of this cost. Fixed cost constituted about 17% of total cost. The returns on gross and net profits were about 30 and 15%, respectively. For every bird sold, the farmer made a profit of N435 and the breakeven point (volume) was 348 broilers. A striking difference of over 35% profitability was observed between this study and a previous study in the same state before the Avian-flu attack in Nigeria, thus raising grave concerns of any direct attack for the industry in the area. Further, the regression analysis showed that feed, equipment and labour were statistically significant at 5% level, thus enhancing the usage of these inputs would increase profitability. The farmers, who were mainly of middle age group and school certificate holders, were found to be allocatively inefficient and operated at an increasing return to scale. This implied that they were operating in Zone 1 or Irrational Zone of the production function. To be efficient, the broiler farmers need to re-adjust downwards the over-utilized inputs, namely feed, labour, equipment and drugs by 35, 79, 99.8 and 99.9%, respectively. In addition, the under-utilized input, namely, size of stock, need to be re-adjusted upwards by 56%. Allied to this, is the need to enhance the farmers’ educational status (formal and informal) and encourage young graduates to take to farming. All stakeholders including the government, consumers and producers should synergize in the monitor and control of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) strain H5NI, which rampaged parts of the country to stem possible morbidity of the disease.
  O.O.M. Iheshiulor , B.O. Esonu , O.K. Chuwuka , A.A. Omede , I.C. Okoli and I.P. Ogbuewu
  Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by certain strains of filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, which invade crops in the field and may grow on foods during storage under favourable conditions of temperature and humidity. They are regularly implicated in toxic syndromes in animals and humans. No region of the world escapes the problem of mycotoxins and its estimated that there are about 300 harmful mycotoxins. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) estimates that about 25% of the world crops contain mycotoxins. Mycotoxins have been detected in various food commodities from many parts of the world and are presently considered as one of the most contaminants of food and feed. Mycotoxins causes mycotoxicoses and their toxicity depends on the amounts ingested, time-span of exposure, type of animal, their breed, age, sex, health status, but also other parameters such as density of animals, diseases and temperature. The mycotoxins of most concern due to their toxicity and occurrence are aflatoxin, vomitoxin, ochratoxin, zearaleone, fumonisin and T-2 toxins. They cause significant economic losses in animals due to reduced productivity, increased disease incidence, chronic damage of vital organs and decreased reproductive performance. Also, the productivity and nutritive value of infected grains and cereals drops after contamination by mould. Animals may have varying susceptibilities to mycotoxins depending on physiological, genetic and environmental factors. Preventing mould growth and subsequent mycotoxin production is essential to the feed manufacturer, livestock producer and for maximum animal performance.
  E.U. Onweremadu , C.C. Asiabaka , C.P. Anyanwu , G.A. Anyanwu , E.B. Etuk and B.O. Esonu
  This study evaluated animal manure production, management techniques, utilization and effect on soil productivity in Amuzu Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria. The study, which was conducted in 2006 used structured interview schedule at a phase of the study. In another phase, we studied the effects of animal manures from muturu (Local cattle), goats, sheep and pigs on a degraded Isohyperthermic Kandiudult using maize (Zea mays L.) as a test crop. The potted experiment was set up in a greenhouse using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with each treatment replicated 9 times. Five treatments used included manures from Muturu, goats, sheep, pigs and control. Relevant measures of central tendency and dispersion were used in the statistical analysis of socio-economic and agronomic data. Results showed that a greater number of households engaged in goats and sheep, thereby making their manures relatively more abundant than other livestock. Majority of the livestock fend for of themselves in rangelands with pigs being more confined. Animal manures were collected and used although they were inadequate and bulky while there was poor knowledge of urine as biofertilizer quality of manures differed with handing technique and manure improved maize (Zea mays L.) performance significantly (p = 0. 05). Soil chemical fertility was significantly (p = 0.05) improved. Integrated studies especially is if affects indigenous knowledge will be helpful.
  M.C. Uchegbu , N.O. Igbokwe , A.A. Omede , I.C. Ekwuagana , I.C. Okoli and B.O. Esonu
  A study was carried out with one-hundred and twenty 4-week old Hubbard broilers to compare the quality of some commercial feeds by assessing the performance of finisher broilers fed these diets. The commercial feed brands were collected and branded ZF, VF and EF. A formulated Control Feed (CF), T1 and three other commercial feeds ZF (T2), VF (T3) and EF (T4) were fed to the finisher broilers for 28 days in a completely randomized design experiment. The results showed that CF, VF and EF performed better than ZF in daily weight gain. Among the commercial feeds, however, VF achieved the fastest daily weight gain and therefore promoted the fasted growth rate, hence indicating a better balance in nutrient composition and improved feed quality.
  L.A. Agbabiaka , B.O. Esonu and F.N. Madubuike
  Studies were conducted on the proximate, mineral and anti-nutrients composition of raw and processed castor oil seeds and by-product. Processing methods adopted include fermentation, dry and moist heat (toasting and boiling) treatments respectively. The results revealed that, the processing methods have tremendous effect on the chemical and anti-nutrient components of the seed and by product. Nevertheless, the traditional methods of processing employed eventually reduced the concentration of anti-nutrients and encouraged its utilization in animal nutrition generally.
  I.P. Ogbuewu , V.U. Odoemenam , H.O. Obikaonu , M.N. Opara , O.O. Emenalom , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli , B.O. Esonu and M.U. Iloeje
  There has been astronomical increase in the costs of chemical fertilizers, agrochemicals, animal feeds and synthetic drugs in the developing countries, with an increasing indebtedness and acute poverty. This situation exerts enormous pressure to explore local resources, handy to combat these deficits and improve quality of life of the people. One of such available resources with great potentials in the 21st century is the neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) tree. Neem belongs to the family Meliaceae. It is the most versatile, multifarious trees of tropics, with immense potentials. It possesses maximum useful non-wood products such as leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seeds, gum, oil and neem cake than any other tree species. Biologically neem has numerous bioactive ingredients with diverse applications. These bioactive ingredients are known to have antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, insecticidal, larvicidal, anti-implantation, nematicidal, spermatocidal and other biological activities. This review is an attempt to assemble all the major research findings in neem which is of direct relevance to environment, industry, medicine and agriculture.
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