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Articles by B.M. Hargis
Total Records ( 17 ) for B.M. Hargis
  S.N. Henderson , J.L. Vicente , C.M. Pixley , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Chicks are commonly held for up to 72 h from the time of actual hatch to placement under commercial industry practices. Delaying access to feed and water has been documented to increase susceptibility to pathogens and weight loss, leading to poorly starting flocks with reduced weight gains. Seven experiments were conducted to compare the use of EarlyBird™ (EB; Sigrah-Zellet, LLC.) to no supplementation (NS) in chick boxes when chicks were held for a 24 h simulated shipping period. In each experiment, broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery, neck tagged, individually weighed, and randomly placed in boxes of 100 chicks. Treated chicks received 2 g/chick of EB. Following 24 h, chicks were individually weighed and placed with feed and water ad libitum. In all experiments, chicks that received EB during simulated shipping experienced significantly less body weight loss during the 24 holding period (p<0.05) and were significantly heavier at 7 d. At slaughter, EB treated broilers were 58 g heavier than the controls. The results are consistent with earlier reports indicating that the dependence of chicks on residual yolk sac during the first few days post hatch limits the growth potential of modern broilers. Early feeding can not only impact the general well being of the chick but also can have significant effects on early growth, leading to increased weight gains that persist through broiler production.
  J.L. Vicente , S.E. Higgins , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  To evaluate the effect of a litter acidifier (PGLA) on Salmonella enteritidis(SE) horizontal transmission, two experiments were conducted with broiler chicks grown on used (Exp. 1) and new (Exp. 2) litter. In each experiment, three hundred day-old broiler chicks from a commercial hatchery were obtained and divided into three litter treatments with four replicate pens each. The treatments were: control (no litter treatment); low dose of PGLA (LD: 815g/2.27m2); and high dose (HD: 1631 g/2.27m2). In Exp. 1, two hundred-forty chicks were placed in floor pens with pine shaving-based litter previously used for at least two prior growouts (20 chicks/pen). Another 60 chicks were challenged with 7.5×103 cfu of SE (seeders), placed in a separate pen with clean new pine shaving-based litter for 24 hours, then 5 seeders (20%) were placed with the contact chicks in each respective treatment pen. Salmonella recovery from cecal tonsils of 10 chicks/ pen were evaluated on days 11 and 21. Application of PGLA at both LD and HD on used litter significantly reduced (p<0.05) SE recovery compared to controls (Control: 28%, LL: 0%; HL: 3% respectively) on day 11 after placement, but no difference was observed at day 21. However, a significant increase (p<0.05) in body weight was detected in the HD compared to the control group on d21, but not d11. Similarly, application of PGLA to clean pine shavings (Exp. 2) reduced (p<0.05) SE recovery from cecae of chicks cultured on day 11 (control: 46%; LD: 23%; HD: 18% respectively). Body weights through 21 days were unaffected by PGLA treatment of new litter. These data suggest that PGLA treatment of new or used litter may reduce early horizontal transmission of Salmonella. Enhanced 21-day performance of chicks on used litter treated with PGLA may suggest that other low-level pathogens were reduced by treatment, although further studies are necessary to confirm and extend these findings.
  R.L. Jarquin , G.M. Nava , A.D. Wolfenden , A.M. Donoghue , I. Hanning , S.E. Higgins and B.M. Hargis
  An Organic Acid Mixture (OAM) was evaluated for efficacy against Salmonella enteritidis (SE) horizontal transmission and crop colonization in broiler chickens. The biocidal efficacy of the OAM (0.024% tannic, 0.042% lactic, 0.048% butyric and 0.048% acetic), was initially determined in vitro by treating a feed suspension inoculated with SE. The OAM was effective at reducing SE by at least 1 log unit in the feed suspension (P = 0.05). Treatment with the OAM was also assessed in combination with a probiotic treatment to evaluate effectiveness against horizontal transmission. One hundred newly hatched chicks were administered 3 treatments of OAM or probiotic, or 3 treatments of both OAM and probiotic over a 10 d period. Chicks (n = 20/group) were orally challenged with a 105 cfu mL-L culture of SE prior to treatment to act as sources for horizontal transmission. Ceca were collected and cultured for SE after 10 or 20 d. Horizontal transmission was reduced with OAM treatment solely (P = 0.05) or in combination with probiotic (P = 0.05). However, no apparent advantage to using both treatments was observed. The ability of the OAM to reduce SE crop contamination was determined by challenging market aged broilers with a 109 cfu mL-L culture of SE and administering the OAM in drinking water. Broilers were challenged with SE and immediately given the OAM or given the OAM 2 d prior to SE challenge. OAM was valuable in preventing horizontal transmission but did not eliminate crop colonization. The emergence of SE strains resistant to multiple antibiotics presents the need for alternative treatments and the results of these experiments show that an OAM may be a cost efficient and effective tool however the method of application of the OAM may alter effectiveness.
  A.D. Wolfenden , J.L. Vicente , L.R. Bielke , C.M. Pixley , S.E. Higgins , D.J. Donoghue , A.M. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Effective Competitive Exclusion (CE) cultures have been shown to accelerate development of normal microflora in chicks and poults, providing increased resistance to infection by some enteric bacterial pathogens. Our objective was to develop a CE culture for prophylaxis and reduced horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broiler chickens. In the present study, seven members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and 2 lactic acid bacteria isolates, each capable of in vitro and in vivo inhibition of SE, were selected and combined to form the putative CE culture. In the first experiment, day-of-hatch chicks were randomly divided into four pens. All treated chicks were orally gavaged with the CE culture and 3 pens were treated with the CE culture in the drinking water for four consecutive days. Treated and control-non treated chicks were challenged with SE on day 4. All 3 groups of birds that were treated with the CE culture had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in cecal colonization compared with non-CE-treated SE-challenged chicks. Two additional experiments were designed to measure the efficacy of the CE culture in reducing SE horizontal transmission from infected to uninfected chicks when commingled. SE was recovered in the cecal tonsils with a significantly lower incidence at days 7 and 14 in Experiment 2 and day 7 in Experiment 3 from the groups that received the CE in the drinking water as compared to controls respectively. These results suggest that a relatively simple and defined CE culture can reduce SE colonization in neonatal chicks.
  A.D. Wolfenden , C.M. Pixley , J.P. Higgins , S.E. Higgins , B.M. Hargis , G. Tellez , J.L. Vicente and A. Torres-Rodriguez
  Spray application offers low-cost and efficient application of biologic and reduced concerns regarding diverse water quality and medicator/proportioner function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the spray application of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chickens. Day-of-hatch chicks were challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) by oral gavage alone, challenged with SE and treated by coarse spray application of a commercially-availably Lactic-acid bacterial probiotic (FM-B11™), or challenged with SE and treated with B11 continuously in the Drinking Water (DW). Five days post-challenge, cecal tonsils were collected for presence or absence of SE. In Exp. 1, probiotic treatment by either spray or DW application significantly (p<0.05) reduced SE recovery (55% and 50% respectively; controls 85%) when chicks were held for 8h prior to challenge and placement. Similarly, when probiotic spray treatment or water treatment and challenge occurred simultaneously, with placement 8h after treatment, a marked and significant reduction of SE recovery was noted after 5d (10% and 40% respectively, controls 55%). In Exp. 2, when probiotic spray treatment and challenge occurred simultaneously, with placement 8h after treatment, a significant reduction of SE recovery was again noted in both the spray and DW application (80% controls, 15% spray, 15% DW). Taken together, these results suggest that spray application of B11, when performed in the manner described above, can be effective for protection of chicks against Salmonella infection.
  A.D. Wolfenden , C. Pixley , B.M. Hargis , G. Tellez , J.L. Vicente and L. Avina
  In poultry and other species, economic losses during transport are due to mortality, carcass shrinkage (carcass dehydration) and carcass condemnation. Feed Withdrawal (FW) prior to processing is necessary to reduce fecal ingesta contamination of carcasses during processing. Direct acidification of the water with specific concentrations of some Organic Acids (OA) has been shown to significantly reduce the amount of potential pathogens such as Salmonella on the carcasses by antemortem disinfection of the crops when used during the pre-slaughter feed withdrawal period. However, reduced water consumption due to effective OA concentrations have been shown to increase carcass shrink. In the present study, the effect of a commercially available mix of flavored organic acids significantly reduced carcass condemnation at the processing plant in 3/3 trials (p<0.05) % and mortality during transportation in 1/3 trials (0.40% treated vs. 0.65% control). A consistent improvement of average body weights at the farm and at the processing plant due to reduction of carcass shrinkage and condemnation at the processing plant were also observed in the treated marked age broiler chickens. Water intake was numerically higher in treated birds when compared with non-treated birds (72.9 mL vs. 62.5 mL). During FW, this OA product could be useful to reduce mortality, shrinkage and carcass condemnation during transportation to the processing plant of broiler chickens.
  L. R. Bielke , S. E. Higgins , A. M. Donoghue , T. Kral , D. J. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Survival of bacteriophages through the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) and persistence in the lower gastrointestinal tract (LGIT) is essential for treatment of enteric bacterial infections. We have hypothesized that non-pathogenic Alternative Host Bacteria (AHB), originally isolated from poultry cecal samples, could be used to protect bacteriophages during UGIT passage and to provide host cells for continued amplification in the LGIT. We selected two previously-identified Wide Host Range (WHR) bacteriophages (WHR-8 and WHR-10) and their respective AHB for use in the present studies. For each of the bacteriophage-host combinations, combination of the bacteriophage with the AHB prior to oral gavage had little effect on the concentration of recovered bacteriophages from the cecal contents during the three days post-administration. Furthermore, continuous administration of the AHB in the drinking water had little effect on intestinal bacteriophage recovery during the three days of evaluation. Bacteriophages were also tested for differences in anaerobic and aerobic lysis of Salmonella enteritidis as a possible reason for decreased persistence in the LGIT. Differences in lysis between anaerobic and aerobic environments were significant, however levels were not likely different enough to have significant in vitro effects. These results suggest that selection of AHB to protect or amplify enteric bacteriophage populations is not necessarily a simple process. Survival of the AHB and ability of the AHB to replicate in the LGIT of the target animals are among considerations that should be made in future investigations.
  R.E. Wolfenden , N.R. Pumford , M.J. Morgan , S. Shivaramaiah , A.D. Wolfenden , G. Tellez and B.M. Hargis
  Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials may be an effective alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Environmental samples were pasteurized to remove vegetative cells, plated onto TSA or SPA for 24 or 72 h and overlayed with soft agar containing S. enteritidis or C. perfringens. Isolates which produced antimicrobial activity against both pathogens were used to inoculate a solid state fermentation media and allowed to sporulate, to numbers greater than 109 spores/g and subjected to in vivo testing in both poults and chicks. In exp. 1 chicks fed isolates PHL-RW35 and PHL-RW41, at doses of 107 and 105 spores/g feed respectively, showed significant increases (p<0.05) in both Body Weight (BW) and Body Weight Gain (BWG). No significant differences in BW or BWG were noted in poults for any treatment. In this experiment, all groups were challenged with 105 cfu of S. typhimurium at day-of-hatch, no significant differences in Salmonella were noted between groups. In experiment 2 PHL-RW41 fed at 105 spores/g of feed significantly increased BWG by 8.3 and 11.7% in chicks and poults respectively. Isolate PHL-RW35 also increased BW and BWG in poults. These data indicate this approach for in vitro selection may be effective for screening and selection of Bacillus direct-fed microbials capable of causing an increase in BW and BWG in commercial poultry.
  C. Pixley , J. Barton , J.L. Vicente , A.D. Wolfenden , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The transport of live animals has important economic and welfare implications. A commercially-available organic acid product (Optimizer) was added to the drinking water of commercial hen turkeys during preslaughter Feed Withdrawal (FW) in two trials. In trial 1, a total of 60 trailers from treated (OA) or control non-treated turkey houses were evaluated. Turkey farmers initiated water treatment on the day before pick up (8-12 h treatment according to label directions). Investigators recorded trailer numbers as they were loaded out of each house to confirm which trailers contained treated birds vs. control non-treated birds. Individual trailer weights were recorded upon arrival to the processing plant and again immediately prior to live hang. A significant reduction in rate of weight loss during holding at the processing plant was observed in the treated turkeys (719 g/min per OA treated trailer vs. 845 g/min per control trailer). In trial 2, two commercial market age turkey houses were selected and in each house, 400 birds were weighed and recorded as a representative sampling. The treated house received OA administered according to manufacturer’s directions continuously for 19 h. At the end of this time, 400 birds were weighed and recorded as a representative sampling. A significant (p<0.05) improvement of average body weights was observed in treated turkeys during 19 h (125 g treated vs. 35 g control), an average of 90 grams difference. Experiments are ongoing to measure water consumption during the FW that may explain the reduction in carcass shrinkage during transportation to the processing plant and increased body weights at the farm by increasing hydration of turkeys treated with OA.
  G. Tellez , G.M. Nava , J.L. Vicente , M. De Franceschi , E.J. Morales , O. Prado , J.C. Terraes and B.M. Hargis
  A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Aspergillus Meal (AM) prebiotic on intestinal development, morphology in turkey poults. Day-old Nicholas poults (n = 100) were randomly assigned to two groups. Poults in each group were divided and placed in floor pens with 50 poults each. One group served as a control and received a ration containing no added AM prebiotic. Poults in the treatment group were provided a ration supplemented with 0.2% AM prebiotic. Each dietary regimen and water were provided ad libitum to 30 days of age. Poults were humanely killed by CO2 inhalation and specimens of duodenum and distal ileum were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days. Histology sections were cut (5 μm) and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and combinations of either of periodic acid-Schiff with alcian blue, or high iron diamine with alcian blue stains to evaluate 20 intact villi on each section. The morphometric variables analyzed included villi height, villi surface area and crypt depth. In addition, goblet cells, classified as neutral, acidic or sulpho mucin cells, respectively, were quantitative for each treatment group. At all times of evaluation, AM prebiotic significantly increased the number of acid mucin cells in the duodenum, neutral mucin cells in the ileum and sulpho mucin cells in the duodenum and ileum. Villi height and villi surface area of both duodenum and ileum were significantly increased at days 10 and 30 compared to control. The present study suggest that AM prebiotic has an impact on the mucosal architecture and goblet cells proliferation in the duodenum and ileum of neonate poults.
  S. Shivaramaiah , J.R. Barta , S.L. Layton , C. Lester , Y.M. Kwon , L.R. Berghman , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Coccidiosis is caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria, belonging to phylum Apicomplexa. EmTFP250 is a high molecular mass, asexual stage antigen from Eimeria maxima (EM) strongly associated with maternal immunity in newly hatched chickens. Cloning and sequence analysis predict the antigen to be a novel member of the Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein (TRAP) family. Three novel attenuated Salmonella enteritidis strains (ΔSE) expressing TRAP oligopeptides in association with a potential immune-enhancing CD 154 sequence, on the outer membrane protein lamB, were developed. Broiler chicks were grouped based on treatment and 108 cfu/chick of vectors expressing one of three sequences, or vehicle alone, was orally administered to each group. At 21 d of age, all groups were challenged with 104 sporulated oocysts/chick orally. Mortality at 5d post-challenge was markedly different (p<0.05) in chickens vaccinated with TRAP Upstream (US). To further evaluate the efficacy of TRAP US as a potential vaccine candidate, a similar study was conducted. Broilers were orally vaccinated with 108 cfu/chick vehicle with TRAP US and CD 154 or sham vaccinated with saline. Coccidia challenge was performed with 105 sporulated oocysts/chick at 22 d of age. Immunized chickens showed remarkable improvement in weight gain (p<0.05) and had reduced mortality (p = 0.055) when compared to non-immunized controls. These two studies underscore the potential of EmTFP250 as a potential candidate for a recombinant vaccine targeting coccidiosis in chickens.
  A.R. Reginatto , A. Menconi , A. Londero , M. Lovato , A. Pires Rosa , S. Shivaramaiah , A.D. Wolfenden , W.E. Huff , G.R. Huff , N.C. Rath , A.M. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.2% dietary Aspergillus Meal (AM) on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. A total of 200 day-of-hatch turkey poults were used for this experiment. Two dietary treatments, similar in energy and protein content differing only by the addition of 0.2% AM, were used. Poults were divided into 2 treatment groups with 25 birds per treatment and four replicates each. Group 1 received a basal non medicated control diet and group 2 received dietary AM. At the end of 30 d, poults were weighed, euthanized and tibias were collected to evaluate bone quality using an Instron shear press machine and bone parameters such as tibia weight, diameter, ash, calcium and phosphorus assays. Samples of distal ileum were collected and the content subjected to protein and energy analysis. Poults fed with dietary AM had a significant improvement in BW and feed conversion ratios (p<0.05). Distal ileum content showed significantly less concentration of energy and protein when compared with the poults receiving control diet. Tibia weight, diameter, breaking strength, ash, calcium and phosphorus were significantly higher in poults that received dietary AM prebiotic. These results suggest that the increase in performance and bone parameters in neonatal turkey poults fed with 0.2% AM, is improved upon feeding Aspergillus niger mycelium prebiotic.
  H.P. Bhaskaran , A.M. Donoghue , K. Arsi , A. Wooming , I. Reyes-Herrera , L.R. Bielke , G. Tellez , J.A. Byrd , P.J. Blore , B.M. Hargis and D.J. Donoghue
  The administration of nonpathogenic microflora in neonatal poultry has been employed to reduce or eliminate the colonization of enteric pathogens. This concept, also called Competitive Exclusion (CE), although effective against Salmonella, has not consistently worked against Campylobacter. Most CE cultures are developed by randomly collecting enteric bacteria without any preselection criteria for bacteria. It may be possible to enhance the efficacy of a CE against Campylobacter by preselecting enteric microflora with the ability to inhibit Campylobacter, in vitro. With this goal, an assay was developed to test individual isolates with the ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter growth, in vitro. Individual isolates (n = 137) were collected from ceca of both juvenile and adult poultry and tested for efficacy against Campylobacter. Isolates were serially diluted (104 or 105 CFU/well) and added to 96 well polystyrene plates containing 1 x 104 CFU C. jejuni or C. coli/well. Plates were incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Following incubation, a 1 μl loop from each well was streaked onto Campy-Cefex agar plate and incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Twenty-three isolates were identified with the ability to inhibit C. jejuni or C. coli growth in vitro. This research demonstrates that it is possible to pre-screen enteric isolates for Campylobacter inhibition for use as competitive exclusion cultures.
  A. Londero , A. Menconi , A.R. Reginatto , I. Bacocina , A. Wolfenden , S. Shivaramaiah , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 0.2% dietary Aspergillus Meal (AM) against horizontal transmission of Salmonella sp. in turkeys and chickens. Experiment 1 evaluated the effect of AM against horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in turkeys. Day-of-hatch turkeys were assigned to untreated control or AM prebiotic-fed groups. Five additional seeder turkeys per group were challenged with 1.5 x 105 cfu SE and placed in each of the treatment groups 24 h later. At ten, twenty and thirty days of age, Cecal Tonsils (CT) were cultured for SE recovery. A significant reduction in SE recovery (25%, 30% and 35% respectively) was observed in prebiotic-fed turkeys when compared with controls (p<0.05). In experiments 2 and 3, the effect of AM against horizontal transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in chickens was evaluated. In each experiment, day-of-hatch chickens were assigned to untreated control or AM prebiotic-fed groups. Five additional seeder chicks per group were challenged with 1.25 x 105 cfu of ST and placed in each of the treatment groups 24 h later. At ten days of age, Liver/Spleen (L/S) and CT were cultured for ST recovery. In experiments 2 and 3, percent reduction of ST from L/S and CT were 60%, 75% and 55%, 60% respectively when compared to non-treated controls. These results suggest that the addition of AM as a prebiotic at 0.2% may have a beneficial effect in reducing Salmonella levels and may enhance overall food safety of poultry meat.
  A. Menconi , A.R. Reginatto , A. Londero , N.R. Pumford , M. Morgan , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  An alternative to antibiotics is the use of certain organic acids for routinely encountered pathogens in the poultry industry. Direct acidification of drinking water with organic acids could significantly reduce the amount of recoverable Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) from the crop and cecal tonsils when used during the pre-slaughter feed withdrawal period. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo evaluations were conducted to compare a commercially available water acidifier (Optimizer®), versus two formulations of organic acid mix (OAM), made up of of acetic, citric and propionic acids at a final concentration of either 0.031% or 0.062%, to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium in the crop and cecal tonsils of broiler chicks during a 24 h period. The two OAM showed better in vitro activity to reduce Salmonella when compared to control. In vivo, the OAM (0.062%) had a similar effect as Optimizer® showing a significant reduction in total number of ST positive cecal tonsils, and reducing the number of ST in the crop when compared with controls (P < 0.05). All treatments reduced the number of ST recovered from crop contents at 24 h. This new formulation of OAM has great potential as a crop sanitizer and will be further evaluated under conditions similar to commercial chickens.
  Anita Menconi , Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco , Juan David Latorre , Gopala Kallapura , Neil R. Pumford , Marion J. Morgan , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of chitosan as a biological sanitizer on chicken skin during storage. For experiment 1 (two trials) five skin samples of equal size were dipped into a solution containing 106 cfu/mL of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) for 30s. Skin samples were then removed and dipped into a solution containing PBS or 0.5% chitosan for 30s. In experiment 2, aerobic Gram negative spoilage bacteria were used as indicators instead of ST. In both experiments, all samples were placed in individual bags and kept at 4°C. In experiment 1, dipping ST contaminated skin samples in a solution of 0.5% chitosan reduced (p<0.05) the recovery of ST by 24 h. In experiment 2, 0.5% chitosan treatment solution reduced (p<0.05) the presence of spoilage-causing psychrotrophic bacteria below detectable levels. These results suggest that 0.5% chitosan has a potential for use in an intervention technology for the control of foodborne pathogens on the surface of chicken skin contaminated with bacteria during storage.
  G.K. Kallapura , X. Hernandez-Velasco , A. Piekarski , K. Lassiter , N.R. Pumford , G. Tellez , W.G. Bottje , B.M. Hargis and O.B. Faulkner
  Quantifying nitrite, a metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), is a well-established marker for the production of reactive oxygen species and an indirect measurement for inflammation. Under optimal culture conditions various cell based systems, like peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal macrophages along with many macrophage based cell lines, would produce measurable nitrite by 24 to 72 h post stimulation with an agonist. We have developed a rapid ex vivo ileal explant culture method that can measure elevated nitrite within 3 h of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in vitro. The model was developed to measure elevated NO along with the ability to measure differential NO among control and treated groups, with an aptitude to screen potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant candidates. Ileal cross-sections (0.5 cm2) were cultured from chickens that were challenged for three consecutive d with Salmonella Enteritidis in the drinking water. Quantification of NO in these inflamed ileal explants provided a suitable screening model which potentially mimics in vivo intestinal conditions. This model could rapidly detect NO, at a greater magnitude than other cell culture methods. The ileal explants produced elevated nitrite by 3 h with a maximal magnitude of 478.42 μM nitrite 6 h post LPS stimulation. The model was also successful in measuring differential NO between the control and groups treated with potential anti-inflammatory compounds. This unique and simple ileal explant culture method provides a rapid screening system for inflammation modulation and the potential to quantify other inflammatory markers that are indicative of other gut pathogens to evaluate candidates for regulating inflammation.
 
 
 
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