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Articles by B.M. Ali
Total Records ( 4 ) for B.M. Ali
  S.A. Al-Talib , B.M. Ali and S. Khatun

Problem statement: Source Specific Multicast (SSM) is an acceptable solution for current multicast applications; since the driving applications to date are one to many, including Internet TV, distance learning, file distribution and streaming media.
It was useful for billing, address allocation and security. SSM still had serious state scalability problem when there were a large number of simultaneous on-going multicast groups in the network.
Results:In this study, a scheme had been devised to improve the state scalability of source specific multicast. The scheme consisted of two stages:
Conclusion/Recommendations: The first stage was to cluster the receivers based on their IP addresses and the second stage was to reduce the multicast state at routers. In order to prove the correctness of the proposed scheme, it had been applied to multicast trees built by other researchers. The results of the comparison approved our statement.

  Rania A. Mokhtar , Sabira Khatun , B.M. Ali and A. Ramli
  Problem statement: Cognitive radio is a candidate technology for more efficient spectrum utilization systems based on opportunistic spectrum sharing. However, a common assumption regarding cognitive radios is that they are unlicensed spectrum users that should defer to (avoid interfering with) existing primary sources. Therefore effective sensing of primary users was a major focus of current research. Cooperative spectrum sensing had been proposed to overcome the problem associated with the local sensing node problem-due to noise uncertainty, fading and shadowing. However, reporting the sensing result required perfect channel to avoid degradation in sensing performance due to fading. It also required a large bandwidth assuming large number of cognitive user. Approach: In this study we presented a hard decision auto-correction reporting scheme that directly corrects the errors in the reported bit and further minimizes the average number of reporting bits by allowing only the user with a detection information to report its result. We used analytical formulation to investigate the reporting scheme, by employing such selection technique; the reporting error due to the fading channel was reduced. Results: The sensing performance was investigated and we showed through simulations and probabilistic analysis the sensing performance improvements achieved via the proposed method. Numerical result showed much decrease in reporting bit without affecting the sensing performance.
  M.I. Buhari , M.H. Habaebi and B.M. Ali
  In this study, we analyzed the use of neural network for packet filtering. The neural network system was designed in eight ways with input to the neural network in the form of either access rules or optimized access rules or binary form of access rules or representing wildcards as 0 and 255, or combination of them. These trained neural networks were analyzed for their correctness and the performance aspects such as training time using test data. In order to further improve the security, the data related to the local usage of the network was also used to train the network. An example of implementing these trained systems in active networks packet filtering was presented.
  Yaseen H. Tahir , Chee Kyun Ng , N.K. Noordin , B.M. Ali and S. Khatun
  Problem statement: Higher data transmission rate with Quality of Services (QoS) guarantee is an important objective for wireless broadband communication systems. Unlike other communication system, real-time transmission requires high data rate and good error performance to ensure good quality of service. This study describes the design problem of real-time wireless data transmission which provides higher achievable data rate with Unequal Error Protection (UEP). Approach: Real-time data stream was divided equally into two streams, High Priority (HP) and Low Priority (LP) streams depending on their requirements. We considered these two bit streams as being encoded separately by two adaptive encoders. Feedback of Channel State Information (CSI) was used in adaptive physical layer channel for efficient use of the current available bandwidth by controlling the encoders. High code rate were used in both encoders when the channel is good while low code rate is otherwise. The two coded data streams were superimposed together with two different adjustable levels of power to achieve the UEP at the receiver end. Results: In this proposed scheme, same design metrics, namely, time, bandwidth and power were used to increase the transmission efficiency. Conclusion/Recommendations: Results showed that our scheme provided higher error performance for HP stream compared with other schemes that transmit using one power level data stream. The finding can be modified for studying the effects of fading on this system in future research.
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