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Articles by B.I. Onyeanusi
Total Records ( 13 ) for B.I. Onyeanusi
  B.I. Onyeanusi
  The serum progesterone concentrations of indigenous guinea fowls in Zaria were measured over a period of 12 months (January to December) using 480 adult female guinea fowls. The concentrations ranged between 1.04 and 3.50 ng/ml. The highest level, 3.50 ng/ml, was recorded in the month of June while the lowest level, 1.04 ng/ml was in October and December. Statistically, the serum concentrations of progesterone did not significantly (p>0.05) relate to the weights and total length of the reproductive organs. There were no uniform graphical correlations between the serum progesterone concentrations and the parameters of the reproductive organs.
  B.I. Onyeanusi
  The plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus were analyzed for a period of 12 months using 480 adult female guinea fowls. The calcium levels ranged between 2.00 and 12.25 mg/100ml. The highest level, 12.25 mg/100ml, was recorded in the month of August while the lowest level, 2.0 mg/100ml, was in March. The phosphorus levels ranged between 4.5 and 9.6 mg/100ml. Variation in phosphorus levels was not seasonally dependent as was observed with calcium levels. Statistically, the calcium concentration was significantly (p<0.01) related to the weights of the reproductive organs while the phosphorus concentration was not (p>0.05). The calcium level, therefore, has a direct effect on the reproductive performance of the guinea fowl while the phosphorus level does not.
  B.I. Onyeanusi , M.H. Sulaiman , S.O. Salami , S.M. Maidawa , A.D. Umosen , O. Byanet , J.O. Nzalak , M.N. Ali and J. Imam
  From day one to day nine of embryonic development, no ossification centre was observed in the embryo. Small centres of ossification were seen on the 10th day at some locations like the cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, clavicle, coracoid, scapula, humerus, radius and ulna. Other areas with centres of ossification on this day included the ilium, pubis, femur and fibular. By day 12, these centres of ossification were very prominent at the points seen on day 10 and in addition, the Ischium had ossification centre. By day 13, ossification centres showed up in lumbosacral vertebrae, radius ulna, ulnacarpal and carpometacarpal joints, metatarsus, tibiotarsus, patella, first phalanx of digit ii and second phalanx of digit iii. Between days 15 and 16, additional ossification centres were observed at coccygeal vertebrae, digits ii, iii and iv of pectoral limb. By day 21, ossification centre appeared on the pygostyle and by days 23 and 24, the right and left clavicles had joined together although not properly fused.
  C.S. Ibe , B.I. Onyeanusi , S.O. Salami , A.D. Umosen and S.M. Maidawa
  Morphometric and macroscopic studies were carried out on the respiratory system of the West African guinea fowl (WAGF). The gross anatomical study revealed that the laryngeal mound of the guinea fowl was roughly triangular in shape extending rostrally from the base of the skull and continues caudally as the trachea. It had only one row of caudally pointing papillae. The larger cartilaginous rings of the trachea bifurcated at the ventrum while the smaller cartilaginous rings did not bifurcate. The investigation also revealed that the lung of the adult guinea fowl had the shape of a trapezium. The morphometric result obtained revealed that the mean ( ± SE) life weights of the male and female adult guinea fowls were 1.357kg and 1.225kg, respectively. The mean ( ± SE) weights of the respiratory system were 9.638g and 8.500g for male and female birds respectively. The mean ( ± SE) lengths from the thoracic inlet to the tracheal bifurcation for male and female birds were 3.26cm and 4.40cm, respectively. The male guinea fowl was significantly heavier (p < 0.05) than the female, but there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the mean weights of the respiratory system of the male and female birds. The analysis also showed that the length of the thoracic inlet to tracheal bifurcation for female adult guinea fowl was significantly longer (p < 0.05) than that of the male bird.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot and T. Dzenda
  The objective of this study was to determine gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves in Shikabrown breeder cocks. Five cocks, each of Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red, were slaughtered after one year of evaluation of seminal characteristics. To determine testicular integrity of the breeder cocks, left and right testes from each slaughtered samples were carefully dissected out of the abdomen and marked accordingly. Each testis weight, length and volume were measured, followed by the determination of gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves. The mean testicular lengths for Shikabrown White were 4.22 ± 0.03cm and 3.98 ± 0.04cm for the right and left testes, respectively; while that for Shikabrown Red were 4.40 ± 0.1cm and 4.44 ± 0.09cm for right and left testes, respectively. The mean testicular weight of Shikabrown Red cocks was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of Shikabrown White cocks (12.39 ± 0.76g and 10.23 ± 0.25g, respectively). The mean gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves (x 109 per ml testis) for the right testes in Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red cocks were 57.6 ± 5.6 and 103.2 ± 22.3 (P < 0.01), respectively, while those of the left testes were 84.8 ± 18.2 and 209.4 ± 95.1, respectively. The left mean gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves in Shikabrown Red strain was statistically (P < 0.01) higher than Shikabrown White strain. This study suggests: I) that there are strain differences in testicular function of the breeder cocks and ii) that there are differences in spermatogenic capacity between the right and left testes in breeder cocks.
  A.D. Umosen , B.I. Onyeanusi , S.O. Salami , J.O. Nzalak , J. Imam and C.S. Ibe
  Morphological study on the wattles of forty adult male and female (20 each) helmeted guinea fowls weighing between 0.86-1.40kg was undertaken for sexing the birds. The birds were bought from local markets in Zaria. The shape, size and disposition of the wattle were studied grossly. The wattles of helmeted guinea fowl were found to be similar in structure for both sexes but the main difference was the wattle shape, size and angle of inclination in the upper jaw. The differences in the shape and size observed in wattles of heavier adult males were that they appeared elongated, large and folded upwards at their margins. The wattles of the adult males were also observed to be inclined at an angle to the axis of the upper jaw when compared to those of the females. This observation was confirmed in all the birds selected as males and females after slaughter and dissection. It is concluded that a guinea fowl weighing between 0.95-1.40kg with wattle inclined at an angle to the attachment in the upper jaw with upward folded margin is a male guinea fowl.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , P.I. Rekwot , J.O. Ayo and T. Dzenda
  The seasonal influence on the seminal characteristics of Shikabrown breeder cocks was evaluated weekly during the three seasons in Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. Semen samples were analyzed by gross and routine laboratory methods for volume, motility, concentration, colour, percent dead and percent total abnormality. The highest volume and concentration values of 0.50 ± 0.03ml and 3.60 ± 0.16x109/ml, respectively, were obtained from Shikabrown White breeder cocks during the rainy season, while the lowest volume and concentration values of 0.39 ± 0.01ml and 2.90 ± 0.04x109/ml, respectively, were obtained for the same strain during the hot-dry season. Spermatozoa motility of 80.5 ± 1.1% and 82.3 ± 0.5% were obtained during the harmattan and rainy seasons, respectively, in Shikabrown White breeder cocks. Percent dead sperm values of 4.6 ± 8.3% and 6.40 ± 0.5% were recorded during the rainy and hot-dry seasons, respectively; which were lower (P < 0.05) than the value of 9.0 ± 1.0% obtained during the harmattan season in Shikabrown White breeder cocks. For the Shikabrown Red breeder cocks, spermatozoa volume and concentration were 0.44 ± 0.02ml and 3.44 ± 0.05x109/ml; while 0.45 ± 0.05ml and 3.53 ± 0.09x109/ml.were recorded for the harmattan and rainy seasons, respectively. These values were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 0.30 ± 0.02ml and 2.50 ± 0.08x109/ml obtained for volume and concentration, respectively, during the hot-dry season in the Shikabrown Red breeder cocks. Percent dead sperm in the Shikabrown Red cocks during the rainy and hot-dry seasons (5.50 ± 1.0% and 6.20 ± 1.2%, respectively) were not statistically (P < 0.05) significant, but were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than the value of 8.40 ± 0.5% obtained during the harmattan season. The ejaculate trait for percent abnormality in Shikabrown Red cocks was not significantly different from that of the Shikabrown White strains. In conclusion, spermatozoa were recovered throughout the year and optimal gamete quality was observed during the rainy and harmattan seasons.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot and S.J. Abdullahi
  The influence of timing of artificial insemination on fertility and hatchability of breeder hens was carried out by inseminating breeder hens at 10:00 hr and 15:00 hr with pooled semen from Shikabrown White breeder cocks for four weeks. Fertile eggs were collected two days after the first insemination and stored at a temperature of 16oC for seven days before incubation. Fertility was higher (P < 0.05) in hens inseminated at 10:00 hr when sperm quality was optimal. The fertility values of 82.1 ± 1.0% and 85.0 ± 2.3% obtained in Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for 10:00 hr insemination were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 76.0 ± 3.2% and 78.3 ± 2.5% recorded at 15:00 hr insemination in the Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively. The hatchability values of 72.5 ± 2.8% and 67.0 ± 3.3% were obtained for Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for the morning hour insemination. These values were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 65.0 ± 1.0% and 63.0 ± 1.1% obtained in the Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for 15:00 hr insemination. The results showed that timing of artificial insemination influence fertility in Shikabrown breeder hens and this is probably mediated by meteorological factors. In conclusion for better fertility of Shikabrown hens, insemination should be carried out at 10:00 hr.
  B.I. Onyeanusi , C.G. Onyeanusi and C.S. Ibe
  The experiment was carried out to determine whether the guinea fowls are susceptible to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV). A total of 60 guinea fowl keets were used for the study. They were administered the inoculum through the intraocular route. 30 guinea fowl keets served as the control group (A) while, the other 30 served as the experimentally infected group (B). The only clinical signs observed in about 10 keets were mild depression and transient loss of appetite that did not last more that 24 h. The morphometric observations also indicated that the relative weights in the two groups (A and B) showed no Significant difference (p>0.05) in both the Control (group A) and Infected (group B) keets. It was concluded that guinea fowls are not susceptible to IBDV but they could severe as carriers, which would spread the virus to other poultry species if reared together with them.
  B.I. Onyeanusi , A.A. Adeniyi , C.G. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo and C.S. Ibe
  A morphometric study was carried out on the kidney of the Wistar Rat (WR) using standard laboratory procedures. The mean live weight of the Wistar rat was found to be 140.625±3.078 g. The average kidney weight was 0.605±0.012 g. The right kidney, with a mean weight of 0.632±0.012 g, was significantly (p<0.05) heavier than the left (0.596±0.022 g). The male kidneys were larger than those of the female and the values obtained were 0.633±0.091 g and 0.572±0.132 g, respectively. The relative thickness of the medulla was 5.6. This value (5.6) indicates a high index for the length of the loop of Henle, which acts as a counter current multiplier system and directly increases the ability of the kidney to produce hypertonic urine. This high index thus suggests that the Wistar rat is anatomically adapted within its urinary system (kidney) for water conservation. Furthermore, the present study has provided a baseline morphometric data on the kidney of the Wistar rat in the Northern Savannah zone of Nigeria.
  B.I. Onyeanusi , A.A. Adeniyi , J.O. Ayo , C.S. Ibe and C.G. Onyeanusi
  A comparative study was carried out on the urinary system of the African Giant Rat (AGR) and the Wistar Rat (WR) using standard laboratory procedures. The mean liveweight of the AGR and WR were 863.590±33.740 and 140.625±6.078 g, respectively. The mean kidney weight of the male and female AGR and WR were 2.119±0.062, 2.053±0.009, 0.633±0.091 and 0.572±0.132 g, respectively. It was observed that the mean kidney weight in the male was higher than that of the female in both AGR and WR but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). The mean weight of the right kidney was heavier than that of the left kidney in both the AGR and WR. The mean weight of the right kidney of the AGR was 2.21±0.051 g while, the left was 2.00±0.055 g. The mean weight of the right kidney in the WR was 0.633±0.012 g while, the left was 0.596±0.022 g. No significant difference (p>0.05) was obtained in the thickness of the bladder and its length in both AGR and WR but there was a high significant difference (p<0.001) between the ureter length of the AGR and the WR. The length of the right ureter was longer than the left and the female had a slightly longer ureter than the male in both rats. The relative thickness of the medulla, which is an indicator of the length of the loop of Henle, was 4.297 in the AGR while, that of the WR was 5.6. The higher relative thickness of the medulla (5.6) signifies that the kidney of the WR has an anatomical adaptation for the concentration of urine and thus, better conservation of water in the arid zone while, the lower relative thickness of the medulla (4.2) of the AGR suggests lack of appropriate anatomical adaptation in the kidney for conservation of water. The study has also provided a baseline morphometric data on the urinary system of both the AGR and WR in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria.
  C.S. Ibe , B.I. Onyeanusi , S.O. Salami , I.E. Ajayi and J.O. Nzalak
  African giant pouched rats are currently explored as laboratory model of haematological investigations but few detailed anatomical descriptions have been made of their spleen, limiting their use for such biomedical research. We studied the architecture of the spleen in six adult and clinically healthy African giant pouched rats by gross observation and light microscopy. The spleen was a long slipper-shaped and dorso-ventrally flattened organ lying on the left lateral surface of the abdominal cavity, medial to the lateral abdominal wall and lateral to the greater curvature of the stomach. Statistical analysis showed an average spleen weight of 3.31 g (±0.54) and length of 6.44 mm (±0.48). The spleen constituted 0.313% of the body weight and 2.069% of the nose-rump length. There was a very strong positive correlation between body weight and spleen weight (r = 0.958).
  I.E. Ajayi , S.A. Ojo , B.I. Onyeanusi , B.D.J. George , J.O. Ayo , S.O. Salami and C.S. Ibe
  The study was carried out to elucidate on the macroscopic structure of the medulla oblongata of the grasscutter. A total of ten matured, apparently, healthy African grasscutters were used to investigate the morphologic and morphometric features of the medulla oblongata. The mean body weight and brain weight were 2600±194.95 g and 12.15±0.48 g, respectively. The ratio of the brain to body weight was approximately 1:214. The mean weight of the medulla oblongata was found to be 1.104±0.10 g and this accounted for about 9% of the total brain weight. The mean lengths of the whole brain and medulla oblongata were 4.945±0.091 and 1.376±0.082 cm, respectively. The gross anatomical features of the medulla oblongata were typical of that observed in terrestrial mammals however slight structural differences were observed.
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