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Articles by B.C. Prasad
Total Records ( 16 ) for B.C. Prasad
  D. Kumar , J.P. Pandey , A.K. Sinha , S. Salaj , P.K. Mishra and B.C. Prasad
  The Antheraea mylitta produces tasar silk having massive demand in international market. Its rearing is carried out in outdoor conditions and during course of I to III instar rearing, a major proportion (20-30%) of larvae die due to vagaries of nature, pests and predators etc. which considerably affects the production and productivity. The solution to this major bottleneck of the silkworm rearing lies in evolving a suitable tasar silkworm feed (semi-synthetic diet) for young age tasar silkworm. In present study, comparative evaluation was done among semi-synthetic diet fed; fresh leaf fed indoor reared and fresh leaf fed in natural outdoor reared insects. Data revealed that young age survival and Effective Rate of Rearing (ERR) were higher when larvae were brushed on semi-synthetic diet in contrast to indoor rearing on fresh leaf and complete outdoor rearing. Semi-synthetic diet fed larvae showed greater body weight and their cocoon showed higher weight, shell weight and shell ratio than controls. Concentration of hemolymph protein was slightly higher in semi-synthetic diet fed than outdoor reared larvae whereas, significantly lower in case of indoor reared. Hemolymph protein SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that, the semi-synthetic diet fed larvae is closer to complete outdoor reared larvae than indoor reared. Comparative assessment of rearing, cocoon trait and biomolecular profile of A. mylitta it is assumed that tasar feed developed by our laboratory is novel. It will be helpful in minimizing impact of unfavorable condition during I crop rearing and maintenance of precious eco-races stocks to enhance productivity of tasar silk.
  B.C. Prasad , J.P. Pandey and A.K. Sinha
  Cocoonase which is secreted as a natural phenomenon has its direct utility in softening of cocoons for reeling without altering the very organic nature of tasar silk. In the present study, efforts have been made to comprehend and utilize cocoonase for its future use in cocoon cooking. The emerging moth gradually release cocoonase from galea of their mouth parts in anterior inner portion of the cocoon (peduncle region). After releasing adequate volume of enzyme (around 400-600 μL) for softening the peduncle region of cocoon, with the help of appendages emerging moth create outlet near the peduncle and escape from cocoon shell. Around 1000 mL cocoonase from 2000 eclosion stage A. mylitta have been collected and centrifuged in cold condition (4°C) at 10000 rpm to minimise the impurity. To maintain buffer conditions, cocoonase was collected in pre chilled Tris buffer pH 9.2 and stored at -4°C temperature for further use in cocoon cooking. When cocoons of A. mylitta (Daba ecorace) were subjected to initial water boiling at 100°C on leisurely flame for 30-40 min followed by cocoon soaking in cocoonase for 20-24 h at 37°C, the 80-90% softening of cocoon shell was found. Silk filament obtained from the cocoons cooked in cocoonase maintains natural tasar silk colour, softness and structure. The 50-52% silk recovery was observer in cocoonase cocoon cooking. By centrifuging used reaction mixture at 9000 rmp in cold condition to remove impurities and adding 10-15% volume of fresh cocoonase in reaction mixture left over enzyme solution can be reused once. More study is required to get better cocoonase cooking efficiency and consistent cooking with higher or comparable silk recovery than the ruling practices.
  G. Lokesh , Putkho Paul Pao , K.N. Madhusudhan , P.K. Kar , A.K. Srivastava , M.K. Sinha , R. Manohar Reddy , P.M. Muniswamy Reddy and B.C. Prasad
  The wild silkworm, tropical tasar Antheraea mylitta Drury being mainly culturing in central and eastern parts of India and produces famous tasar silk. This insect species expresses divergent phenotypic characters in response to varying ecological and climatic conditions thus exists as ecoraces. Hence, in the present study, three ecoraces viz., Daba, Sukinda (Semi-domesticated) and Sarihan (wild) have been selected for the assessment of the variability in silk gland related traits. The parameters of the silk glands studied like comparative length, weight and silk gland to larval body mass index. Besides, some biochemical contents of the silk gland tissue were also studied in three ecoraces. The results showed significant variations at p<5% in all the parameters among the three ecoraces studied, also showed the sexual dimorphism in expression of silk gland features and economic traits. The semi-domesticated Daba ecorace showed higher performance in most of the parameters with comparatively greater in silk gland weight (22%) and in body mass index (>16%). Apart from this, wild ecorace Sarihan cocoons showed higher shell ratio (>10% over the value of other ecoraces). The study infers that, there is wide variability in the expression of phenotype with respect to silk gland related traits among the different ecoraces of tropical tasar silkworm A. mylitta. Since the silk glands are site of biosynthesis of silk proteins, these may be considered for the assessment of diversity or characterization of different ecoraces of tropical tasar silkworm.
  J.P. Pandey , P.K. Mishra , Dinesh Kumar , A.K. Sinha , B.C. Prasad , B.M.K. Singh and T.K. Paul
  Generally, Antheraea mylitta cocoons cooking is carried out in alkaline condition by using soap, soda, H2O2, etc., which adversely affects the natural beautiful colour and softness of tasar silk. At eclosion stage, the emerging adults of tasar silkworm, A. mylitta exude a proteolytic enzyme ‘cocoonase’ which helps in softening anterior portion of cocoon shell and facilitates emergence of moths. Interestingly, cocoonase directly acts on the sericin protein without affecting the fibroin protein. It evidently indicates that, sericin is excellent natural substrate of cocoonase. This natural phenomenon engenders an idea to collect the cocoonase of A. mylitta and investigate its possible-efficacy in cocoon cooking. The SDS-PAGE analysis of freshly collected cocoonase (from emerging moths) showed molecular weight around 26 kDa. A simple technique for cocoonase collection from freshly pierced cocoons has been developed. Cooking of cocoon in cocoonase is concentration, pH, temperature and time dependent. Low concentration (1:15, 1:20, 1:25, 1:30 and 1:35) increases the cooking time and decreases the cooking efficiency. Higher concentration (1:5 dilutions) minimises the cocking time and increases the cooking efficiency. But cocoons were not fully reeled due to hardness in inner portion of the cocoons. Initial boiling of cocoon in water for 30 min followed by cooking in cocoonase (1:5) at 35-40°C temperature and 8.5 to 9.0 pH yielded comparatively better cooking efficiency with 50-55% silk recovery. Yarn obtained from the cocoons cooked in cocoonase preserve natural beautiful unique tasar silk colour, softness and lustre.
  K.N. Madhusudhan , G. Vinayarani , S.A. Deepak , S.R. Niranjana , H.S. Prakash , G.P. Singh , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of inducers viz., plant extracts, plant seed oils and salicylic acid on tobamoviruses in both indicator and host plant. Tobamoviruses are major hurdles in the production of tomato and bell pepper. Currently, different inducers derived from various origins are being used to reduce the virus concentration. Preliminary screening of the inducers against tobamoviruses was conducted by using the local lesion assay (Nicotiana glutinosa). The results showed that all the inducers used for screening were effective in reducing the number of local lesions formed by the challenge inoculation of tobamoviruses. Both spray and seed treatment of inducers against the tobamoviruses reduced the concentration of viruses in the seedlings as evident from the results of Indirect Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Among the inducers used for the induction of resistance against tobamoviruses, Bougainvillea spectabilis extract was found to be most effective. The inducer-treated seeds also showed enhancement of seed germination and seedling vigor.
  R.M. Reddy , M.K. Sinha , K.P.K. Kumar , N.S. Gahlot , A.K. Srivastava , P.K. Kar and B.C. Prasad
  The aim of the present study is to explore hybridization influence to achieve the potential of silk yield and quality in commercial tasarculture, as against the current status of applying only a few wild and semi-domesticated ecoraces of Antheraea mylitta D to produce raw silk during commercial crop rearing season (September-December). The four F1 hybrid combinations generated using Daba, Jata and Raily tasar ecoraces of seed crop rearing season (July-August) were evaluated during commercial crop season of 2007 and 2008 for the influence of hybridization as positive heterosis in the traits of economically important silk productivity and filament denier. The F1 hybrid, Daba x Jata has recorded positive heterosis in single shell weight (+25.6%), total silk yield (+79.0%) and silk filament length (+68.1%), but for silk filament of high denier (11.98 d) followed by its reciprocal hybrid, JataxDaba in shell weight (+18.8%), silk yield (+68.1%), filament length (+63.8%) and filament of highest denier (12.32 d). Though, the RailyxDaba hybrid could show highest heterosis in shell weight (2.47 g) with filament of least denier (10.86 d), the improvement in filament length was marginal (+44.7%) and heterosis in silk yield was negative (-47.0%), while the performance of DabaxRaily hybrid was least among the hybrids. The study infers hybridization influence on silk related traits at F1 level as positive heterosis and the application feasibility of DabaxJata and JataxDaba hybrids during commercial crop rearing season for higher silk productivity with silk filament denier at least better than one of the parents of F1 hybrid combination.
  D. Kumar , J.P. Pandey , J. Jain , P.K. Mishra and B.C. Prasad
  In the present study, quantitative and qualitative changes in protein profile of different tissue of larvae, pupae, adult and eggs of Tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury was investigated. Stage and age dependent variation in protein concentration and SDS-PAGE protein profile of 36 and 64 kDa protein was observed in different tissue. The concentration of protein was recorded higher in eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth and significant variation was also noticed in normal and depressed eggs. Interestingly, substantial changes in SDS-PAGE protein profile was observed in normal and depressed eggs and eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth. Haemolymph and midgut protein concentration was recorded higher in 3rd and 5th instar feeding larvae and in 4th instar mature larvae. Concentration of protein in the haemolymph of pupae before the brain window becomes opaque was higher in both the sexes than opaque stage. Fat body protein concentration in larvae showed increasing trend from 3rd to 5th instar larvae and it was higher in pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and fresh moth. In addition, higher protein concentration was recorded in gonads of pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and in reproductive organs of fresh moth. Present findings would promote to further understand the precise reason for depression of eggs and changes in protein profile in different tissue of A. mylitta.
  K.P. Kiran Kumar , A.K. Sinha , S.K. Gupta , K.N. Madhusudhan and B.C. Prasad
  Pebrine disease in tasar silkworm is considered to be most serious because of its chronic pathogenicity. Prophylactic method of mother moth examination proves to be the foolproof technique for pebrine identification. So, the study was conducted to investigate pebrine spores detection competency and evaluation of their quality in exhisting mother moth examinations. Four existing mother moth examination methods namely Prick and See, Conventional, Fuziwara and Delayed Mother Moth Examination (DMME) by Fuziwara were selected for the study. The maximum pebrine and hatching percentages were noticed in 4 days DMME with 23.2 and 93.1%, respectively. While, minimum values were observed in prick and see with 4.3% and 84.3, respectively. No significant variations in Cocoon weight, Shell weight and S.R% was observed in cocoons obtained from the different mother moth testing methods. Least percentage of effective rate of rearing (ERR) was observed in Prick and See method (58.75%) followed by Conventional method (61.25%) and Fuziwara (63.15%). High percentage of ERR was observed in DMME which ranged from 64.53% (1st day after egg laying) to 67.28% (4th day after egg laying). Least percentage of improvement of ERR% over Prick and See was observed in Conventional (2.50%) followed by Fuziwara (4.40%). High percentage of ERR over Prick and See was observed in DMME which ranged from 5.78% (1st day) to 8.53% (4th day). Consequently, among the tested mother moth examinations, DMME by Fuziwara after delaying four days from the egg laying has given best results. This method can be implemented in the research institutions for the maintenance of germplasm and breeders stock.
  J.P. Pandey , Dinesh Kumar , Sony K. Roy , P.K. Mishra , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury DABA-ecorace is commercially exploited in India for tasar silk production. Generally, its cocoons used to preserve in outdoor and indoor conditions. But in recent past, due to global warming, tasar silk zone day time temperature (May-June) shoots up and it goes up to 35 to 45°C or even more. It cause adverse impact on the survival of tasar silkworm pupae and invite heavy loss to the tasar silk industry. In the present study, hemocyte and enzyme-based methods have been used to evaluate the impact of outdoor and indoor seed cocoon preservation on A. mylitta pupae. Interestingly, differences in Total Hemocyte Count (THC), hemocyte contour/morphology, protein concentration, fat body and hemolymph acid phosphatase (Acp) activity of outdoor and indoor preserved pupae have been observed. Marked variation in THC was observed among high, low and median weight pupae. Although, no significant variation was observed in THC of indoor and outdoor preserved female pupae but significant difference was found in male pupae of both the preservation conditions. Differential profile of hemocytes was differing in outdoor and indoor conditions with change in cell-contour. Elevation in immune cell “plasmatocytes (PLs)” numbers was recorded in indoor preserved cocoon. Acp activity in fat body of indoor preserved pupae was higher than outdoor but reverse trend was found in hemolymph. Activity profile Acp vary in male and female with higher, lower and median weight pupae. Protein concentration in hemolymph of outdoor preserved pupae was more in comparison to indoor but this trend was found usually reverse in fat body. In addition, less protein concentration was recorded in fat body and hemolymph of male pupae in contrast to female. It is expected that, based on hemocyte and enzyme-based method impact of cocoon preservation conditions on A. mylitta pupae can be evaluated/observed.
  R. Manohar Reddy , M.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  Though, India enjoys the availability and practice of mulberry, tasar (tropical/temperate), eri and muga silks, the utilization of tropical tasar seri-biodiversity, however requires appropriate breeding methods so to exploit the global demand of this vanya silk, besides reforming tribals, weaker sections and landless rural populace on economic front. Among the existing forty four ecoraces of Antheraea mylitta Drury, only Daba and Sukinda are commercially applied for cocoon production and want is in situ conservation and ex situ stabilization of additional ecoraces, particularly the Shorea robusta (sal) based, as amenable parental base for hybridization and silk production. The breeding for disease and adversity resistance, correlation among the trait(s) of commercial value as the tasar silkworm being an eco-insect reared outdoor and exploring the biotechnological tools for transgenic application appears pragmatic and worth. The management of genotype and environment interaction through multilocational breeding stations irrespective of rearing seasons applying compatible ecorace; breed or line(s) and involving the beneficiaries for their indigenous knowledge along with trained breeders is the indispensable strategy to achieve the tasar raw silk productivity and quality. The review has dealt with feasible breeding scenario of tasar silkworm in attaining the qualitative yield for the commercial sustenance of tropical tasarculture.
  R. Manohar Reddy , Suresh Rai , A.K. Srivastava , P.K. Kar , M.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  Assorted F1 hybrids and reciprocals of divergent tasar ecoraces of Antheraea mylitta viz., Daba, Jata and Raily were evaluated for relative heterosis. The DabaxJata [R] (random female and male) and its reciprocal hybrids have recorded high positive heterosis for fecundity (+17.45 and +1.70%), egg fertility (+11.58 and +7.20%), shell weight (+34.76 and +27.44%), silk ratio (+30.49 and +24.15%) and silk yields (+94.33 and +82.51%), respectively. Dabax Jata [PxS] (high pupal female and high shell male) hybrid, although recorded positive heterosis for all traits, but was next to random parental hybrids. The DabaxJata [PxP] (high pupal female and high pupal male) combination and its reciprocal have shown positive heterosis only for fecundity (+22.13 and +35.89%), while DabaxJata [SxS] (high shell female and high shell male) hybrid and its reciprocal are positive in shell weight (+45.12 and +33.54%) and silk ratios (+26.95 and 27.95%). All hybrids of DabaxRaily including reciprocals have shown negative heterosis for fecundity and silk yields. However, DabaxRaily [R], [SxS], [PxS] hybrids and their reciprocals have shown uneven positive heterosis for egg fertility (+1.65 to +20.74%), shell weight (+7.56 to +56.98%) and silk ratios (+1.02 to +54%). In general, all reciprocal F1 hybrids of Daba, Jata and Raily ecoraces have shown lesser heterosis. The dissimilar performance of assorted F1 hybrids and reciprocals of Daba, Jata and Raily ecoraces reveal their varied potential on relative heterosis. However, the study infers commercial prospective and optimal seed cocoon expediency in Daba and Jata ecoraces as F1 hybrids [R] and reciprocals. While, the trait specific positive heterosis in high pupal and high shell hybrids (assorted F1 hybrids) have application in segregating lines with desired traits and aggregating them in to needy one(s).
  R. Manohar Reddy , M.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  In spite of huge availability of nature grown tropical tasar silkworm food plants and rural tribal man power, the tasarculture and raw silk production is yet to attain the potential. The reason being the inadequacy of prospective commercial silkworm seed and breed options, and the urgent need is a coherent application of existing parental races by effective selection. The global demand for vanya silks in general and tasar silk in particular, call-for sustainable utilization of country’s seri-biodiversity potential. Viability and productivity proportion of tasarculture in terms of seeds, cocoons and essentially raw silk, need attention for its vital role in reforming the livelihood and economic condition of rural, backward and tribal farmers. The conventional approaches on basic stock maintenance, commercial seed production, selective use of parental races or parents for heterosis and heterobeltiosis, method of backcrossing to exploit the traits of commercial importance and applying the advantage of GenotypexEnvironment (GxE) interactions are indispensable. In spite of current knowledge on sophisticated transgenic silkworm, appropriate application of on-hand parental resource material and methodologies can expedite tasar silk productivity improvement in addition to up-keep the agro based cottage industry’s cost-effectiveness and biodiversity conservation. The review deals with the current situation and probable strategies for enhancing the productivity and quality of tasar raw silk.
  R. Kumar , R.M. Reddy , P.S. Sinha , J. Tirkey , M.K. Singh and B.C. Prasad
  The continuous exploitation of tropical tasar food-plant, Terminalia tomentosa (W and A) rose on wastelands under the rain-fed conditions by rearing its economic insect pest; Antheraea mylitta (D) needs soil management for sustainable yields. To asses the feasibility, legumes like Sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea), Daincha (Sesbania aculeata), Green gram (Vigna radiatus) and Black gram (Vigna mungo) were raised during monsoon (June) season in the inter space of T. tomentosa economic plantation for biomulching. The Sun hemp has yielded highest biomass of 39.0 q ha -1, followed by Daincha, Green gram and Black gram with 26.6, 25.3 and 17.7 q ha -1, respectively after 45 to 50 days of sowing, has been mulched for soil fortification. The water holding capacity, electrical conductivity and organic carbon have been improved with reduced pore space and bulk density of the soil and enhanced leaf yield of tasar food-plant after legume biomulching. The superior Effective Rate of Rearing (ERR), higher cocoon and shell weights, better silk ratio and longer silk filament length of tasar silkworm in biomulch treatments have contributed to increase silk yield. Among the biomulches, Sun hemp has shown improved water holding capacity (56.9%) and moisture (68.5 and 37.9%) at 30 and 45 cm depth with electrical conductivity (0.30 mhos cm -1), bulk density (1.12 g cm -3), pore space (50.4%), organic carbon (0.61%) of soil, leaf yield (24.8 MT ha -1) of food plant and ERR (80.1%), cocoon weight (12.25 g), shell weight (1.90 g), silk ratio (14.03%) and silk filament length (724 m) specify its suitability in making tropical tasarculture sustainable under rain-fed conditions.
  Dinesh Kumar , J.P. Pandey , Ragini , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury is sericigenous wild insect has own dictation on its life cycle stages. Being a poikilothermic organism, temperature decides the fate of A. mylitta during embryonic and postembryonic development. Silkworm eggs (seed) is very vital input of tasar silk industry but due to global warming elevation in temperature with less humidity during 1st crop grainage of A. mylitta negatively affects the quality and quantity of egg hatching. In the present study, impact of temperature stress on embryonic development and biochemical profile of A. mylitta eggs has been investigated. Data reveals that considerable alteration in temperature used to hamper the protein and carbohydrate profile which leads to affect the embryonic development and hatching of eggs. Fluctuation in temperature with low humidity causes delay in egg hatching and decrease in hatching percentage. But higher temperature with low humidity during embryonic development of eggs resulted in death of embryo during early age. The depressed eggs with fully formed dead larvae inside the eggs were found after high temperature stress. The concentration of the protein and carbohydrate steadily decreases during subsequent larval differentiation until hatching. Protein and carbohydrate profile also confirm the death of embryo during early stage. In un-hatched eggs, due to less metabolized utilization higher concentration of these nutrients are available. Our initial information indicates that protein and carbohydrate profile can be utilized as biochemical marker for testing appropriate embryonic development and hatchability of eggs.
  K.P. Kiran Kumar , G.P. Singh , A.K. Sinha , K.N. Madhusudhan and B.C. Prasad
  Among the diseases of tasar silkworm, virosis caused by Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (CPV) is highly contagious and more prevalent. Thirteen antiviral plants were used to test their efficacy against Antherae mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) in tasar silkworm. The aqueous extracts of these plants in different concentrations were used for containment of virosis in virus-infected silkworm and mortality was recorded. The influence of best three phytoextracts which have shown good results in suppressing virosis were subjected for the study of cellular and biochemical changes. Two percent aqueous extracts of Aloe barbedensis (AKP 3), P. corylifolia (AKP13) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (AKP 9) were found more effective in suppressing the virosis and reduced the mortality due to virus infection of 66.17, 64.47 and 57.19%, respectively. The total hemocyte count increased up to 6th day of post inoculation in phytoextract treated batches while in the inoculated control the increase was within 3 days indicating the positive hemocyte mediated response in silkworm treated with phytoextract. The hemolymph protein in Aloe barbedensis treated silkworm (35.27 mg mL-1) was significantly higher than inoculated control (20.25 mg mL-1). The gradual increase of total hemolymph proteins from 1st day (16.31 mg mL-1) to 8th day (33.73 mg mL-1) was observed in healthy control where as in inoculated control increasing trend was observed from day 1 (16.26 mg mL-1) to day 3 (24.22 mg mL-1) there after decreasing trend was observed and finally reached to 20.25 mg mL-1 (8th day). The plant extract of Aloe barbedensis (AKP 3) is more effective in suppressing virosis based on the results of mortality reduction against virosis cellular and biochemical changes.
  G.P. Singh , A.K. Sinha , P.K. Kumar and B.C. Prasad
  Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D., an economically important insect is affected by bacteriosis caused by bacteria, which accounts considerable loss of 10-15% to silk cocoon production. The aim of the present investigation was to isolation, characterization and identification of bacteria causing diseases in Indian tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D. Total 15 isolates of bacteria in two groups (8 from anal lip sealing diseased silkworms and 7 from rectal protrusion diseased worms) were isolated. The shape, size and colour of bacterial colony were recorded. The gram reaction of vegetative cells, its shape, size and pattern of reaction with different enzymes were observed for characterization of different bacterial isolates. Pathogenecity of these bacteria have shown that only two bacterial isolates coded SA3 and RP2 were responsible for anal lip sealing and rectal protrusion diseases, respectively in tasar silkworm. The bacterial isolates coded SA3 and RP2 on the basis of cultural, morphological and biochemical characters tentatively identified as Serratia sp. which were, close to Serratia nematodiphila and Serratia marcescens sub sp., respectively. The infection of anal lip sealing and rectal protrusion diseases in Indian tropical tasar silkworm caused by Serratia nematodiphila and Serratia marcescens was reported first time.
 
 
 
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