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Articles by B.A. Ayanwale
Total Records ( 3 ) for B.A. Ayanwale
  M.M. Ari , B.A. Ayanwale , T.Z. Adama and E.A. Olatunji
  Chemical composition, amino acid profile, anti nutritional factors (ANFs) and protein quality factors of different thermally (extrusion, cooking, toasting and roasting) processed soybeans (Glycine max) for broiler diets were evaluated in this study. Dry Matter (DM) percentage ranged from 79.00 to 91.25% while Crude Protein (CP) percentage ranged from 12.51 to 28.34%. Crude Fibre (CF) values were highest with toasting (28.34) while cooking gave the lowest value (12.51). Ether Extract (EE) highest value was obtained in cooked soybeans (19.50%) while the least (9.72%) was obtained in extruded soybeans. Total ash percentages ranged from 4.27 to 4.46% while NFE percentage ranged from 13.75 to 26.31%. Ca and P percentage values were high (1.08 and 0.33%) in roasted and extruded respectively. Amino acid profiles (g/100 g protein) values for lysine ranged from 2.40 to 5.1, while cystine had values ranging from 0.64 to 0.88. Methionine value were highest (1.02 and 1.14) in cooking and roasting and least in extrusion (0.52) while phyenylalanine values ranged from 3.06 to 4.26. Reduction due to treatment was observed in Trypsin Inhibitor Activity (TIA) and phytic acid and cooking methods was highest for TIA (85%), extruded soybeans (60.59%), toasted and roasted soybeans were similar (52.44% and 53.75%). Reduction in phytic acid was highest with roasted soybean (71.7%), followed by 70.73% in cooked soybeans, toasted soybean was least (48.12%). Urease assay values ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 (ΔpH) and cooked soybean had highest protein solubility index of 83.40%. Phytic acid and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity (TIA), phytic acid and percentage reduction in TIA, Protein Solubility Index (PSI) and phytic acid, TIA and percentage reduction in TIA were correlated. Protein quality and TIA inactivation was more preserved and effective with cooking method.
  M.M. Ari and B.A. Ayanwale
  Although the African Locust bean (Parkia filicoide) tree is widely distributed in Northern Nigeria, its application as an alternative replacement of conventional plant protein source in poultry feeds has not gained significant prominence. This study evaluates the inclusion level of fermented African locust bean seeds in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty Lohman broilers day old chicks were randomly divided into six experimental groups of two replicates each were used in a 9 weeks feeding trial to evaluate percentage of nutrients retained and serum indices of broilers. Dietary treatments were as follows: T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 representing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of groundnut cake replacement with fermented African locust bean seeds and 100% unfermented African locust beans. Treatment effects was significant (p<0.05) in the percentage of nitrogen, lipids, total ash, calcium and phosphorus retained. Crude fibre retention was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by experimental treatment. Treatment effect was significant (p<0.05) with fermented African locust bean seeds based groups giving better nitrogen, lipids and phosphorus retention with T5 showing best values. Nitrogen retention is positively (p<0.05) correlated with total serum protein, cholesterol, Hb/PCV and feed treatment (p<0.01); while crude fibre retention is negatively (p<0.05) correlated with all serum indices and treatment. Percentage retention of lipids is positively (p<0.05) correlated with total serum protein and cholesterol and so also with Hb/PCV and FALB inclusion at (p<0.01). Digestible ash is negatively (p<0.01) correlated with total serum protein and also negatively (p<0.01) correlated other serum indices and fermented African locust bean seeds inclusion at (p<0.05). Fermentation of African locust beans improved nutrient retention at both Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) and portal system and availability for tissue synthesis.
  M.M. Ari and B.A. Ayanwale
  The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of diets containing alkali treated soyabeans on serum profile and growth indices of broiler chickens using 240 days-old Anak broilers that were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of three replicates each. Test soyabeans seeds were treatment by soaking in water, sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to incorporation into the diets; these forms experimental diets D1, D2, D3 and D4. Significant (p<0.05) variations in the serum and blood parameters measured were observed, highest mean values recorded were in D1 for urea, creatine and hemoglobin while cholesterol had the highest value in D3. No significant (p>0.05) difference was observed in the packed cell volume of the treatment groups. Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Growth Efficiency (GE) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by alkali treatment at both the starter and finisher phases. Similarly, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) were significantly affected by dietary treatments (p>0.05) at both the starter and finisher phases. D3 showed better serum profile and growth indices in this study.
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