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Articles by B. M. Hargis
Total Records ( 3 ) for B. M. Hargis
  J .L. Vicente , C. Lopez , E. Avila , E. Morales , B. M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  This study evaluated capsaicin extracted from chili pepper and its prophylactic effect on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) experimental infection, feed conversion, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation in laying hens. Dekalb hens (30/treatment) were fed for 28 days with two different levels (18 and 36 ppm) of dietary capsaicin from paprika oil. Both levels (18 and 36 ppm) of dietary capsaicin did not affect the feed conversion, egg production or egg weight. At 25 days, hens were challenged with 108 cfu mL-1 of SE. Three days after inoculation, liver and spleen were collected aseptically and cultured as a combined sample. The higher capsaicin treatment significantly decreased (p<0.05) SE organ invasion (43.44%; 13/30) when it was compared with the low capsaicin treatment (56.67%; 17/30) and control group (76.67%; 23/30). Eggs were collected on day 20 of the trial and the yolk pigmentation was measured directly with a chroma meter CR-300 (Minolta) in the CIELab scale. Both concentrations of dietary capsaicin significantly increased the deposition of red pigment on egg yolk (14.11±1.40 and 17.44±1.90) compared with control group (-1.58±2.65). The results of the present investigation suggest that the natural capsaicin, extracted from paprika seeds at 36 ppm in the diet, had a prophylactic effect on experimental SE infection in laying hens and both concentrations of capsaicin increased red pigmentation of the yolk.
  A. D. Wolfenden , J .L. Vicente , J. P. Higgins , R.L. Andreatti Filho , S. E. Higgins , B. M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The effect of an organic acid mixture (OA) and a Lactobacillus-based probiotic culture on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection in broiler chicks was evaluated. In exp. 1, chicks were challenged by oral gavage with SE, held in chick boxes for 2 h and randomly assigned to either untreated control or continuous OA treatment in the drinking water. Crop and cecal tonsils were cultured at 48 h and 5 d post-challenge for recovery of SE. Recovery of SE in the crop and cecal tonsils at 48 h was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the OA treated group as compared to control chickens but not different at 5d. In exps.2 and 3, chicks were SE challenged, held in chick boxes for 2 h and randomly assigned to either untreated control, probiotic, OA, or probiotic+OA. After 24 or 48 h, crop and cecal tonsils were cultured for the presence or absence of SE. After 24 h, probiotic or probiotic+OA significantly reduced SE recovery from the crop as compared to controls. All treatments reduced SE recovery from the cecal tonsils at 24 h. While no significant differences were observed in SE recovery from crop at 48 h, SE recovery from probiotic and or probiotic+OA groups was significantly lower than the controls in the cecal tonsils. These data suggest that combination treatment with the selected OA and Lactobacillus-based probiotic culture is more effective than individual treatment for Salmonella reduction in chicks.
  A. M. Donoghue , L.R. Bielke , S. E. Higgins , D. J. Donoghue , B. M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Bacteriophages used to treat infections are typically amplified in a pathogenic host. However, this practice introduces the risk of administering any remaining bacteriophage-resistant pathogen during bacteriophage application if separation techniques are less than perfect. In this study, bacteriophage isolates capable of replicating in both Salmonella and Klebsiella oxytoca were identified and applied to poultry carcasses. These Wide-Host-Range bacteriophages (WHR) were amplified using the non-pathogenic bacteria, Klebsiella oxytoca in tryptic soy broth until a titer of ~109 PFU/mL was obtained. WHR and Klebsiella oxytoca were not separated prior to treatment of carcasses. Fresh processed chicken carcasses were inoculated with either Salmonella enteritidis (SE) or S. typhimurium (ST), sprayed with 5 mL of WHR and rinsed with sterile water. Samples were enriched, plated on XLD agar and evaluated for Salmonella-typical colonies. In four separate trials, WHR significantly reduced the recovery of SE. No SE was detected in two trials and a greater than 70% reduction was seen in the other two trials. ST was also significantly reduced in the two trials in which it was included (p<0.05). These experiments suggest that WHR could be an inexpensive and safe method for the reduction of Salmonella on broiler carcasses.
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