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Articles by B. Barrett
Total Records ( 2 ) for B. Barrett
  S Byford and B. Barrett
 

In making treatment decisions, psychiatrists, like other medical professionals, must adhere to rules of ethical medical conduct. They may also need to negotiate the legalities associated with detention and treatment against a patient’s wishes. The growth in guidance produced by organisations such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has added further complexity. Practitioners are increasingly required to consider cost-effectiveness in their treatment decisions and this can appear to conflict with the principles of medical ethics. With particular reference to mental healthcare, this article attempts to answer two questions: Is economic evaluation unethical? And are the methods of economic evaluation unsound for the purpose of achieving an ethical distribution of resources?

  P Ravani , P Parfrey , J MacRae , M James , R Quinn , F Malberti , G Brunori , S Mandolfo , M Tonelli , B Hemmelgarn , B Manns and B. Barrett
 

Background and objectives: Comparing outcomes of arteriovenous grafts and fistulas is challenging because the pathophysiology of access dysfunction and failure rate profiles differ by access type. Studying how risks vary over time may be important.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Longitudinal data from 535 incident hemodialysis patients were used to study the relationship between access type and access survival, without (semiparametric Cox modeling) and with specification of the underlying hazard function (parametric Weibull modeling).

Results: The hazard for failure of fistulas and grafts declined over time, becoming proportional only after 3 months from surgery, with a graft versus fistula hazard ratio of 3.2 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 5.3; Cox and Weibull estimation) and time ratio of 0.11 (i.e., the estimated access survival time was approximately one tenth shorter in grafts; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.28; Weibull estimation only). Considering the entire observation period, grafts had slower hazard decline (P < 0.001) with shorter median survival times than fistulas (8.4 versus 38.3 months; Weibull regression only).

Conclusions: Parametric models of arteriovenous access survival may provide relevant information about temporal risk profiles and predicted survival times.

 
 
 
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