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Articles by B. L Carter
Total Records ( 4 ) for B. L Carter
  B. L Carter , M Rogers , J Daly , S Zheng and P. A. James

Background  Team-based care is the strategy that has had the greatest effect on improving blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the potency of interventions for BP involving nurses or pharmacists.

Methods  A MEDLINE search for controlled clinical trials that involved a nurse or pharmacist intervention was conducted. Mean reductions in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP were determined by 2 reviewers who independently abstracted data and classified the different intervention components.

Results  Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Education about BP medications was significantly associated with a reduction in mean BP (–8.75/–3.60 mm Hg). Other strategies that had large effect sizes on SBP include pharmacist treatment recommendations (–9.30 mm Hg), intervention by nurses (–4.80 mm Hg), and use of a treatment algorithm (–4.00 mm Hg). The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for controlled BP were: nurses, 1.69 (1.48-1.93); pharmacists within primary care clinics, 2.17 (1.75-2.68); and community pharmacists, 2.89 (1.83-4.55). Mean (SD) reductions in SBP were: nursing studies, 5.84 (8.05) mm Hg; pharmacists in clinics, 7.76 (7.81) mm Hg; and community pharmacists, 9.31 (5.00) mm Hg. There were no significant differences between the nursing and pharmacy studies (P ≥ .19).

Conclusions  Team-based care was associated with improved BP control, and individual components of the intervention appeared to predict potency. Implementation of new hypertension guidelines should consider changes in health care organizational structure to include important components of team-based care.

  B. L Carter , G Ardery , J. D Dawson , P. A James , G. R Bergus , W. R Doucette , E. A Chrischilles , C. L Franciscus and Y. Xu

Background  Studies have demonstrated that blood pressure (BP) control can be improved when clinical pharmacists assist with patient management. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a physician and pharmacist collaborative model in community-based medical offices could improve BP control.

Methods  This was a prospective, cluster randomized, controlled clinical trial with clinics randomized to a control group (n = 3) or to an intervention group (n = 3). The study enrolled 402 patients (mean age, 58.3 years) with uncontrolled hypertension. Clinical pharmacists made drug therapy recommendations to physicians based on national guidelines. Research nurses performed BP measurements and 24-hour BP monitoring.

Results  The mean (SD) guideline adherence scores increased from 49.4 (19.3) at baseline to 53.4 (18.1) at 6 months (8.1% increase) in the control group and from 40.4 (22.6) at baseline to 62.8 (13.5) at 6 months (55.4% increase) in the intervention group (P = .09 for adjusted between-group comparison). The mean BP decreased 6.8/4.5 mm Hg in the control group and 20.7/9.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P < .05 for between-group systolic BP comparison). The adjusted difference in systolic BP was –12.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], –24.0 to 0.0) mm Hg, while the adjusted difference in diastolic BP was –1.8 (95% CI, –11.9 to 8.3) mm Hg. The 24-hour BP levels showed similar effect sizes. Blood pressure was controlled in 29.9% of patients in the control group and in 63.9% of patients in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.0-5.1; P < .001).

Conclusions  A physician and pharmacist collaborative intervention achieved significantly better mean BP and overall BP control rates compared with a control group. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate efficient strategies to implement team-based chronic disease management.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00201019

  B. L Carter , W Clarke , G Ardery , C. A Weber , P. A James , M Vander Weg , E. A Chrischilles , T Vaughn and B. M Egan

Numerous studies have demonstrated the value of team-based care to improve blood pressure (BP) control, but there is limited information on whether these models would be adopted in diverse populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a collaborative model between physicians and pharmacists can improve BP control in multiple primary care medical offices with diverse geographic and patient characteristics and whether long-term BP control can be sustained. This study is a randomized prospective trial in 27 primary care offices first stratified by the percentage of underrepresented minorities and the level of clinical pharmacy services within the office. Each office is then randomized to either a 9- or 24-month intervention or a control group. Patients will be enrolled in this study until 2012. The results of this study should provide information on whether this model can be implemented in large numbers of diverse offices, if it is effective in diverse populations, and whether BP control can be sustained long term.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: Unique identifier: NCT00935077.

  B. L Carter , C. Y Lam , J. D Robinson , M. M Paris , A. J Waters , D. W Wetter and P. M. Cinciripini

Numerous studies report smokers’ increased craving and physiological arousal when exposed to cigarette stimuli. These responses are attributed to learning processes (e.g., classical conditioning) and are associated with motivational factors that maintain nicotine dependence. However, much less is known about the degree to which these responses are maintained or diminished during quitting.


Treatment-seeking smokers (N = 104) were randomly assigned to continue smoking or to enter a 2-week treatment program. Abstainers (n = 25) were continuously abstinent for 14–17 days at the time of testing. Control subjects (n = 38) continued to smoke at their usual rate. Participants who were assigned to treatment but resumed smoking during the study (n = 41) were considered to be relapsers. Approximately 2 weeks after baseline measurements, abstainers and controls viewed a series of neutral (n = 12) and cigarette (n = 12) pictures, rating them for craving and arousal (feelings of calm vs. excitement).


Non-cued craving (measured during exposure to neutral cues) was diminished in abstaining smokers. However, cigarette cues produced craving increases of the same magnitude in both abstainers and controls, showing that these cues still had evocative power for both groups. Abstaining smokers, who were not physiologically monitored, had lower self-reports of arousal to cigarette pictures than did controls, but the groups did not differ in arousal to neutral pictures.


These findings suggest that the foundations of cue-induced craving, generalized craving, and physiological arousal associated with craving may arise from separate processes.

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