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Articles by B. C. H Kwan
Total Records ( 3 ) for B. C. H Kwan
  P. K. T Li , Y. L Cheng , C. B Leung , C. C Szeto , K. M Chow , B. C. H Kwan , E. S. C Ng , Q. W. Y Fok , Y. L Poon and A. W. Y. Yu

Background and objectives: Both larger molecule removal and dialyzer biocompatibility have been implicated in the high-flux hemodialysis (HD)-associated favorable outcome. In an attempt to delineate the effect of membrane permeability, we performed a randomized, crossover study to compare the inflammatory biomarkers, lipid profile, and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) of two dialyzers that are composed of identical membranes but with different flux characteristics.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Stable patients who had anuria and were on low-flux polysulfone membrane were randomly allocated either to HD with high-flux polyamide membrane (group A; 22 patients) or to HD with low-flux polyamide membrane (group B; 24 patients) for 24 weeks, then they were started on 24 weeks of the alternative HD treatment. Apart from the dialyzer, the dialysis prescription remained unchanged.

Results: Nineteen patients from group A and 23 patients from group B completed the study. Predialysis β2-microglobulin levels decreased significantly when using the high-flux polyamide membrane. No difference between membranes was observed for serum albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) during the study. A significant increase in aortic PWV, a marker of aortic stiffness, was noted after patients switched from high-flux to low-flux polyamide membranes. Similarly, the rate of change in aortic PWV was significantly decreased with the use of the high-flux polyamide membrane.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dialysis with polyamide membranes with different flux characteristics did not modify the inflammatory indices and lipid profile in stable HD patients; however, a seemingly beneficial effect on aortic stiffness was noted for patients who were maintained on high-flux polyamide membrane.

  C. C Szeto , B. C. H Kwan , K. B Lai , F. M. M Lai , K. M Chow , G Wang , C. C. W Luk and P. K. T. Li

Background and objectives: The outcome of renal transplantation after an episode of acute rejection is difficult to predict, even with an allograft biopsy. We examined whether urinary expression of specific biomarker mRNA could be used as a noninvasive prognostic marker in kidney transplant recipients.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We studied 63 kidney transplant recipients who require graft biopsy because of progressive worsening of kidney function. The mRNA of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), IL-18, surfactant protein-C, and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 and A9 in urinary sediment were quantified.

Results: Urinary expressions of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1, and IL-18, but not other target genes, were significantly different between histologic groups (P < 0.0001 for all). After followed for an average of 39.7 ± 21.1 months, the rate of renal function decline significantly correlated with urinary KIM-1 expression (r = –0.434, P = 0.0004) but not other target genes. At 48 months, the graft survival rate for the high and low KIM-1 groups were 46.2 and 78.6%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, each log of higher urinary KIM-1 expression conferred an ~2.9-fold higher risk of developing graft failure (95% confidence interval, 1.3- to 6.2-fold; P = 0.006). The result remained similar when only patients with no acute cellular rejection were analyzed.

Conclusions: In kidney allograft recipients, urinary KIM-1 expression provides prognostic information in relation to the rate of renal function decline, irrespective of the kidney pathology.

  G Wang , F. M. M Lai , L. S Tam , E. K. M Li , B. C. H Kwan , K. M Chow , P. K. T Li and C. C. Szeto

Objective. Regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE.

Methods. We quantified messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FOXP3, a critical regulator for the development and function of Tregs, in the urinary sediment of 25 subjects with active lupus nephritis (LN), 17 with inactive lupus and 7 healthy subjects.

Results. We found that the expression level of FOXP3 was significantly higher in urine from patients with active LN than from subjects with inactive lupus and healthy controls (24.5 ± 45.8 vs 0.8 ± 1.0 vs 0.6 ± 0.8 copy; P < 0.001). In the active group, urinary FOXP3 mRNA expression level was higher in patients with proliferative LN than non-proliferative nephritis (34.6 ± 56.3 vs 2.7 ± 2.1 copy; P = 0.019). Urinary FOXP3 mRNA level significantly correlated with SLEDAI (r = 0.668; P < 0.001) and proteinuria (r = 0.414; P = 0.006). In the active group, urinary FOXP3 mRNA level also significantly correlated with histological activity index (r = 0.541; P = 0.009) and marginally with intra-renal FOXP3 mRNA level (r = 0.360; P = 0.08). Urinary FOXP3 mRNA in patients with no response to therapy was higher than those with partial response or complete response (57.6 ± 69.8 vs 2.4 ± 1.9 copies; P = 0.02).

Conclusion. We concluded that urinary FOXP3 mRNA is markedly up-regulated in patients with active LN, and the level of expression is closely correlated with the clinical and histological disease activity. A high urinary FOXP3 mRNA in LN predicts a poor therapeutic response. Measurement of FOXP3 mRNA in urine sediment may be a non-invasive biomarker for assessing the severity and risk stratification in LN.

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