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Articles by B. B Cochrane
Total Records ( 3 ) for B. B Cochrane
  C. J Crandall , A. K Aragaki , R. T Chlebowski , A McTiernan , G Anderson , S. L Hendrix , B. B Cochrane , L. H Kuller and J. A. Cauley

Background  Estrogen plus progestin therapy increases breast cancer incidence and breast tenderness. Whether breast tenderness during estrogen plus progestin therapy is associated with breast cancer risk is uncertain.

Methods  We analyzed data from the Women's Health Initiative Estrogen + Progestin Trial, which randomized postmenopausal women with an intact uterus to receive daily conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg, plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 mg (n = 8506), or placebo (n = 8102). At baseline and annually, participants underwent mammography and clinical breast examination. Self-reported breast tenderness was assessed at baseline and at 12 months. The incidence of invasive breast cancer was confirmed by medical record review (mean follow-up of 5.6 years).

Results  Of women without baseline breast tenderness (n = 14 538), significantly more assigned to receive conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone vs placebo experienced new-onset breast tenderness after 12 months (36.1% vs 11.8%, P < .001). Of women in the conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone group, breast cancer risk was significantly higher in those with new-onset breast tenderness compared with those without (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.03; P = .02). In the placebo group, breast cancer risk was not significantly associated with new-onset breast tenderness (P = .97).

Conclusions  New-onset breast tenderness during conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone therapy was associated with increased breast cancer risk. The sensitivity and specificity of the association between breast tenderness and breast cancer were similar in magnitude to those of the Gail model.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00000611

  J. W Smoller , M Allison , B. B Cochrane , J. D Curb , R. H Perlis , J. G Robinson , M. C Rosal , N. K Wenger and S. Wassertheil Smoller

Background  Antidepressants are commonly prescribed medications, but their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains unclear.

Methods  Prospective cohort study of 136 293 community-dwelling postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Women taking no antidepressants at study entry and who had at least 1 follow-up visit were included. Cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality for women with new antidepressant use at follow-up (n = 5496) were compared with those characteristics for women taking no antidepressants at follow-up (mean follow-up, 5.9 years).

Results  Antidepressant use was not associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use was associated with increased stroke risk (hazard ratio [HR],1.45, [95% CI, 1.08-1.97]) and all-cause mortality (HR,1.32 [95% CI, 1.10-1.59]). Annualized rates per 1000 person-years of stroke with no antidepressant use and SSRI use were 2.99 and 4.16, respectively, and death rates were 7.79 and 12.77. Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) use was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR,1.67 [95% CI, 1.33-2.09]; annualized rate, 14.14 deaths per 1000 person-years). There were no significant differences between SSRI and TCA use in risk of any outcomes. In analyses by stroke type, SSRI use was associated with incident hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.10-4.07]) and fatal stroke (HR, 2.10 [95% CI, 1.15-3.81]).

Conclusions  In postmenopausal women, there were no significant differences between SSRI and TCA use in risk of CHD, stroke, or mortality. Antidepressants were not associated with risk of CHD. Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs may be associated with increased risk of mortality, and SSRIs with increased risk of hemorrhagic and fatal stroke, although absolute event risks are low. These findings must be weighed against quality of life and established risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with untreated depression.

  N. M Maalouf , A. H Sato , B. J Welch , B. V Howard , B. B Cochrane , K Sakhaee and J. A. Robbins

Background  Observational studies examining the role of estrogen in the risk of kidney stone formation have shown conflicting results. However, randomized trial evidence on nephrolithiasis risk with estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women is lacking.

Methods  We reviewed the incidence of nephrolithiasis in the Women's Health Initiative estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin trials conducted at 40 US clinical centers. A total of 10 739 postmenopausal women with hysterectomy were randomized to receive 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo, and 16 608 postmenopausal women without hysterectomy were randomized to receive placebo or estrogen plus progestin given as CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg/d). The incidence of nephrolithiasis was determined for an average follow-up of 7.1 years for the CEE trial and 5.6 years for the estrogen plus progestin trial.

Results  Baseline demographic characteristics and risk factors for nephrolithiasis were similar in the placebo and treatment arms. Estrogen therapy was associated with a significant increase in nephrolithiasis risk from 34 to 39 cases per 10 000 person-years (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.44). Censoring data from women when they ceased to adhere to study medication increased the hazard ratio to 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.78). The increased nephrolithiasis risk was independent of progestin coadministration, and effects did not vary significantly according to prerandomization history of nephrolithiasis.

Conclusions  These data suggest that estrogen therapy increases the risk of nephrolithiasis in healthy postmenopausal women. These findings should be considered in decision making regarding postmenopausal estrogen use. The mechanisms underlying this higher susceptibility remain to be determined.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT0000611

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