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Articles by B. Akbar John
Total Records ( 18 ) for B. Akbar John
  K.C.A. Jalal , B.M. Ahmad Azfar , B. Akbar John and Y.B. Kamaruzzaman
  The aim of this study was to examine the phytoplankton patchiness, as expressed by community composition and their diversity during the monsoon and Non-monsoon seasons along the Pahang estuary, Malaysia during 2008. Three zones in the estuary were sampled on both the seasons covering both upstream and downstream of the estuary. Among the identified 42 genera of phytoplankton, the most dominant phytoplankton were Leptocylindrus sp. (19.05%), Lauderia sp. (11.02%) and Skeletonema sp. (10.32%) of total abundance. The least dominant or rare phytoplankton were Ditylum sp. (0.05%), Asterionella sp. (0.04%), Gyrosigma sp. (0.05%), Gymnodinium sp. (0.04%) and Prorocentrum sp. (0.07%) of total abundance. The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in diversity of phytoplankton between different zones (p>0.05). Result indicated that many of the phytoplankton species inhabiting in Pahang estuary were sensitive to salinity fluctuation. The increased diversity during monsoon might be due to the runoff water that probably brought the phytoplankton of other freshwater sources. Physicochemical parameters showed significant variation between different zones (p<0.05) except for temperature. Present study clearly showed that phytoplankton community in Pahang estuary was quiet diverse during monsoon and dominant during non monsoon season.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John , K. Zaleha and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort to assess the utility of 650 bp Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members horseshoe crabs (Family: xiphosura) with closely related sister taxa was made. A total of 33 sequences were extracted from National Center for Biotechnological Information (NCBI) which include horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata), beetles (Class: Insecta), common crabs (Class: Melacostraca) and scorpion (Class: Arachnida) sequences. Constructed phylogram through comprehensive dry lab methodology using advanced software predictive tools showed that beetles are closely related with horseshoe crabs than common crabs (Class: Melacostraca). It was interesting to note that terrestrial Scorpion (Class: Arachnida) were distantly related to horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata). Phylogram and observed Genetic Distance (GD) data were also revealed that Limulus polyphemus was distantly related to all the other horseshoe crab species. Tachypleus gigas was closely related with Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than with Tachypleus tridentatus. The observed mean Genetic Distance (GD) value was higher in 3rd codon position in all the selected group of organisms. Among the horseshoe crabs high GC content was observed in L. polyphemus (38.32%) and lowest was observed in T. tridentatus (32.35%). We conclude that COI sequencing (barcoding) could be used in identifying and delineating evolutionary relatedness with closely related species.
  S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , B. Akbar John , C. Prasanna Kuamr , S. Murugan and K.C.A. Jalal
  Three teleost fishes, Stolephorus indicus, Stolephorus commersonnii and Terapon jarbua occurring in Parangipettai waters, were barcoded (sequenced) for 648 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) for phylogenetic analysis. All the possible barcode sequences of these three fishes were also extracted via FASTA format from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnological Information). The genetic distances within the species was small compared to the genetic distances between the species i.e., the genetic distances within S. indicus was 7.67% and the average genetic distance between S. indicus and S. commersonnii was 9.11%. The genetic distance between the families Engraulidae and Terapontidae was 26.48% which was found higher than the genetic distance calculated within the family of Engraulidae (9.11%). This clearly showed that when organisms from distantly placed families are taken, the genetic distance increases. In the present study some phylogeographical signal was apparent in the data. In the neighbor-joining tree for all 10 sequences, two major groups were apparent: clade A comprising of Terapon jarbua and clade B comprising of Stolephorus species. The grouping pattern of clade A showed some phylogeographical signals. The barcode sequence of Lates calcarifer shuffled within other sequences during phylogram constructions was unambiguously placed as an out group in the phylogram. The clades after bootstrapping corresponded well with the expectations. We conclude that precise and accurate identification of Stolephorus indicus, S.commersonnii and Terapon jarbua could be performed using the barcode sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (in the COI gene) of these fishes.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Mohd Zahir , B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  A study was conducted to determine the bioaccumulation of some essential and non-essential heavy metals by the soft tissue of Perna viridis (Green mussel) collected from Pekan, Pahang during November 2009. A total of fifty individuals of Green lipped mussel P. viridis (Family: Mytilidae) were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) concentration were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The observed mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Pb and Cd in the soft edible tissue of P. viridis was 576.45±87.78, 45.54±8.75, 19.05±4.12, 17.85±2.28, 0.47±0.14 and 0.3±0.06 μg g-1, respectively. The bioaccumulation of metals in the soft tissue flowed in Fe>Zn>Cu >Co>Pb>Cd order indicating that the essential heavy metal accumulates in faster rate than non-essential metals. Comparison with earlier studies showed that Fe and Cu bioaccumulation level was higher in samples from Pekan area with average of 576.45 and 19.05 μg g-1, respectively. All the other metals concentration was lower in the soft tissue of green mussel indicating comparatively lower heavy metal contamination in the Pekan, Pahang compared with other coasts.
  S. Shahbudin , S. Deny , A.M.T. Zakirun , T.A.H. Haziyamin , B. Akbar John and M. Taher
  Present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant property of soft corals belong to the genus: Dendronephthya (Family: Nephtheidae) using α, α-Diphenyl-β-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC) methods using vitamin E as a positive control. Crude extracts were prepared from 4 Dendronephthya sp. using aqueous, dichoromethane: methanol and methanol extraction. All crude extracts of Dendronephthya sp. exhibited antioxidant properties and the white spots appeared during the rapid screening using Dot-Blot and 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) staining where the concentration of crude extract was 1.00 g mL-1 against the DPPH concentration of 0.4 mM. In DPPH assay, not all crude extracts showed a significant value in antioxidant activities thus it could be considered as weak free radical species scavenger. The crude extract were diluted to 1000, 500, 250, 125, 63, 31, 15, 7, 4 and 2 μg mL-1, respectively and tested against highly diluted DPPH (0.06 mM). The IC50 for all crude extracts were greater than 1000 μg mL-1. The percentage of free radical scavenging exhibited by the crude extract was at 2 μg mL-1 concentration (the lowest concentration in serial dilution) with 0.81 to 2.89%. Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC) assay, showed absorbance ranges for control, vitamin E and sample were recorded as 0.012-0.858, 0.001-0.315 and 0.001-0.886, respectively. Inhibition percentage of all the crude extract was closer to the control indicated that they are weak lipid peroxidation inhibitor. However, the aqueous extract of species A and C showed higher inhibition percentage from other extract with the percentage value of 10.8 and 10.5% , respectively.
  B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal , Y.B. Kamaruzzaman and K. Zaleha
  Endotoxins from gram-negative microorganisms initiates clot formation in blood when it is accidentally encountered by horseshoe crab. This property was extensively studied by various researchers as a result Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test was established. The LAL tests in general were 3 to 300 times more sensitive than the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) rabbit pyrogen test method. It should be noted that major differences among the LAL preparations lie in the area of sensitivity. Differences, up to 100-fold, exist in the sensitivity of the various LAL preparations to the same endotoxin. It is also considerate that the Information on the molecular level interaction between horseshoe crab blood and endotoxin would provide detailed information about the clotting process. Based on the above perspective review of literature was established to elucidate the compounds involved in the clot formation in horseshoe crab blood while encountering with bacterial endotoxin. Since LAL preparation is important for its application in clinical, pharmaceutical, public health and environmental areas, this paper will also discuss some molecular level details in Lysated Amebocyte interaction in clot formation.
  S. Shahbudin , Z. Hafifi Hafiz , B. Akbar John , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Present study was conducted to determine the propagation and biodiversity of corals on artificial reefs at Teluk Kalong and Pasir Akar, Malaysia to check the feasibility of artificial reef to rehabilitate natural reef ecosystems and to provide artificial habitat for marine organisms. Two types of artificial reef deployed in these areas were Dome Reef and EnviroReef which were developed by the Dorken Company. Based on the results obtained, coral distribution was higher at Pasir Akar compared to Teluk Kalong. The Shannon diversity index (H’) and evenness index (EH’) of coral at Teluk Kalong were 0.6425 and 0.1766, respectively while the Shannon diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of coral at Pasir Akar were 1.7410 and 0.3247, respectively. Overall, 2 species were found and identified at Teluk Kalong and 10 species were at Pasir Akar with Seriatopora hystrix as the dominant species at both the stations. Coral distribution was higher on Dome Reef compared to EnviroReef. The diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of EnviroReef were 0.5359 and 0.1284 respectively while it was 2.2192 and 0.4274, respectively in Dome Reef. A total of 3 and 9 species were found and identified from the EnviroReef and Dome Reef, respectively with Seriatopora hystrix being the dominant in both the reef structures. We conclude that both artificial reefs structures were suitable as habitat for coral propagation.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Siti Waznah , M.S. Mohd Zahir , M.C. Ong , S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , Z. Rina Sharlinda , A.T. Shuhada , B. Akbar John , B. Joseph , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  Bottom sediments from 62 stations at Pahang river-estuary were analyzed for the concentrations of Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn) and Cobalt (Co). Heavy metal concentrations were analyzed by using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average dry weight concentrations of Cr, Mn and Co were 62.80±20.04, 416.21±127.41 and 7.93±3.25 μg g-1, respectively. The observed concentrations of the studied metals were significantly higher near the estuary and declining as the sampling points were further away from the estuary. The Enrichment Factors (EFs) were calculated and all elements showed metal contamination was predominantly of terrigenous in origin.
  K. Zaleha , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John and M.C. Ong
  Balok, Pekan and Penor have been observed to be nesting grounds of the horseshoe crab. Present study was conducted to assess the metal concentration in sediment of horseshoe crab the nesting ground along the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. Acid Digestion was performed using (HF, HNO3, HCl, EDTA and H3BO4) before determining the actual concentration of heavy metals using ICPMS. 2-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the results. In all stations, Pb was in highest concentration (40.36 μg g-1) followed by Cu (13.44 μg g-1) and the least concentrated metal in the nesting ground was Cd with the high concentration of (0.26 μg g-1). EF values showed that Pb is of anthropogenic source and Cd is of minimum enrichment. Although the levels of Pb are low and regarded harmless to the horseshoe crab, the fear of it affecting those who consume the eggs as well as the crab is still in consideration.
  C. Prasanna Kumar , B. Akbar John , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Cultivable marine bacteria associated with the sponge Hyattella cribriformis (Hyatt, 1877) was studied through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These marine bacterial colonies produced on Zobell Marine agar plates were distinguished based on phenotypic characters viz., colony morphology and pigmentations of the individual colonies. The extracted DNA from the individual bacterial isolates was PCR amplified using universal 16S primers and subjected to DNA sequencing. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Tool) analysis finds that Vibrio diazotrophicus, Bacillus subtilis, B. firmus, Thalassomonas agarivorans, Oleiphilus messinensis, Planococcus maritimus and Brevundimonas vesicularis are the culturable marine bacteria associated with the sponge Hyattella cribriformis. The phylogram constructed clearly delineated the bacterial isolates into its corresponding phylum. The cultivable bacterial density of Hyattella cribriformis was found to be 65x10-5 CFU mL-1. Submitted sequences in NCBI were assigned with accession numbers (FJ834327, FJ834328, FJ834329, FJ845392, FJ845393, FJ845394 and FJ845395). It could be concluded that, application of 16S rRNA sequencing approach would yield novel insights into the diversity of bacteria associated with sponges and hence would help in exploring the commercial importance and their industrial applications.
  G. Iyyapparajanarasimapallavan , P. Sampath Kumar , C. Prasanna Kumar , K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and B. Akbar John
  The distribution and abundance of the gelatinous zooplankton namely hydromedusae, scyphomedusae, siphonophore, ctenophore, salps, doliolids, appendicularians and chaetognaths were investigated in two seasons at seven stations in East Tamil Nadu coast, India. The occurrences of gelatinous zooplankton were observed to be more in summer than in winter. However, the composition of different species in each group varied from all the stations and seasons. Apart from the individual variation in seasonal distribution, most of the species appeared to be cosmopolitan in the Indian waters. A total of 34 species from summer and 17 species from winter were recorded during the present study. The hydromedusae were dominant in both the seasons of the study period. Ephyrae of the scyphomedusae were also noticed in both the seasons.
  K. Zaleha , B. Ibrahim , B. Akbar John and B.Y. Kamaruzzaman
  Recent investigations on harpacticoid copepods have demonstrated their higher nutritional values compared to Artemia and rotifer. Nevertheless, studies on the potential use of tropical harpacticoid copepods as live feed in aquaculture are still limited. The present study was carried out to compare the generation time between selected harpacticoid species cultured in laboratory condition as an early step to choose a potential live feed for aquaculture practices. Some estuarine species of harpacticoids were isolated from Merchang river mouth, an estuary of the South China Sea in Terengganu and undergone trial culture procedure. Three species (Paradactylopodia oculata, Schizopera knabeni and Robertsonia knoxi) were successfully adapted to the laboratory condition thus their generation time were recorded. Copepod samples were cultured under controlled laboratory condition at temperature 25±1°C and salinity 27±1 ppt for 40 days and fed with 0.1 mL of baker’s yeast (0.02 g/L/day). The mean generation time (day) was different for each species where P. oculata showed the long generation time (17.19±4.74 days) followed by S. knabeni (10.19±3.51 days) and R. knoxi (8.93±1.00 days). The species with short generation times could be a better choice for fish larval rearing and hatchery activity due to the early time of nauplii production and hence we suggest the R. knoxi could be used as a potential live feed (on the basis of their generation time) in aquaculture practices.
  S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , Y. Kamaruzzaman , N. Mohammad- Noor , T. Chit Dah and B. Akbar John
  Artificial seagrass plays an important role for the distribution of benthic organisms and fishes. Based on this perspective a study was conducted in the Sepanggar Bay located in the Northern part of Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia from November 2006 to February 2007 to determine the potentiality of artificial seagrass as an alternative habitat for marine fishes. The artificial seagrass area is located approximately 100 m from the coastline at the depth between 6 and 10 m and made up of Dorken Advance Engineer Rubber which was tightened on a square 1 x 3 m metal mat. The sampling process was done by capturing photos and video recording. The picture of the fishes was taken as many as possible to increase the accuracy and precision of fish identification. A total of 497 fish species belong to 17 families were observed in 5 sampling periods throughout the study. Out of 17 families, Pomacentridae was dominant with 25.55% (127 individuals) followed by caesionidae with 22.13% (110 individuals). It was observed that Caesio sp. from a family Caesionidae was dominant genus in the artificial seagrass area, followed by Chromis sp. and Pomacentrus sp. from a family Pomacentridae. Overall Shannon diversity (H’) value of 2.5315 indicates artificial sea grass could play a vital role as a nutrient rich habitat for marine fishes.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Zahir , B. Akbar John , A. Siti Waznah , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  An effort to analyze selected heavy metal accumulation by the razor clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur was conducted on January to April 2010. A total of fifty individuals of Razor clam Solen brevis were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganase (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) Concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Among the metals Fe occurred in elevated concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam followed by Zn. Cd was found to be in least concentration in the sample. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the soft tissue were 415.2±56.52, 87.74±11.85, 18.71±2.10, 8.64±1.75, 0.67±0.29 and 1.61±0.45 μg g-1 dw, respectively indicating that the bioaccumulation of essential metals in the soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals. Metal accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam followed Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd order in present study. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was lower than the permissible limit recommended by National and international standards proved that this species could be utilized for human consumption.
  S. Murugan , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , C. Prasanna Kumar , K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and B. Akbar John
  A detailed study on the length weight relationship of Mugil cephalus in Vellar estuary was conducted between January 2004 and December 2005. Statistical tests such as regression coefficient ‘b’ and ‘a’ tests were performed to compare the b values of males and females from the hypothetical value of 3. The b value of male (2.7658) differed significantly from the hypothetical value of 3 (t = -2.8586<0.05), the b value of female (2.8586) did not differ significantly from the hypothetical value (t = -1.0158>0.05). Values of both males and females were less than 3 which proved the negative allometry growth pattern.
  M. Ashiq Ur Rahman , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , K. Kadharsha , P. Mohan Chander and B. Akbar John
  Determination of Length-weight Relationship (LWR) of any commercially important fish is crucial to validate the wild stock level, to predict their wellbeing in the natural habitat and for various sustainable fishery management practices. Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) is noted to be highly abundant along the coast of Parangipettai, South east coast of India. Hence, the present study was aimed to establish Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Greenback mullet, Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) occurring in Vellar estuary, Parangipettai (lat. 11°30' N, long. 79°46' E) using least square method. To determine the actual relationship between length and weight of L. subviridis exponent coefficient or equilibrium constant (b) and relative condition factor (Kn) analysis were adopted. The females were found to be heavier than males at similar length. The equilibrium constant ‘b’ was found to be 2.7106 in males and 2.8927 in females. The corresponding parabolic representation for male was W = 0.0462L2.7106 and for female W = 0.0382L2.8927. The equilibrium constant did not obey the cube law as it deviated significantly from 3 in the case of males. The relative condition factor around 1 and little over it revealed the well-being of L. subviridis in Parangipettai waters.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John , M.H. Aqilah Megat and K. Zaleha
  An attempt was made to determine the various heavy metal accumulative concentrations in different body parts of horseshoe crab [Tachypleus gigas (Muller, 1785)]. Heavy metal accumulation levels were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Highest mean concentration (μg g-1 wet weight) of iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) was observed in gill tissue (1336.73±2.08 ppm), apodeme (921.11±8.12 ppm), Gut (129.94±13.8 ppm) and apodeme (4.16±0.54 ppm) samples, respectively while lowest concentrations of metals were observed in gut (Fe = 556.61 ppm), mouth (Zn = 605.36 ppm), leg tissue (Cu = 60.85 ppm) and leg tissues (Cd = 2.12 ppm). Results clearly showed that bioaccumulation of essential metal concentration in all the analyzed body parts were higher than non-essential heavy metals with the flow of metals in Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd order. Statistical predictions revealed that bioaccumulation of metals were not significantly influenced by weight, total length and carapace width of the animal. The heavy metal accumulations in samples were higher than the national and international permissible limit range hence not suitable for human consumption.
  C. Prasanna Kumar , B. Akbar John , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , S. Murugan , M. Rozihan and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort was made to assess the utility of 650 bp partial Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members of taxonomically ambiguous marine fin fishes (Family: Mugilidae). To address the issue we used all the 95 barcode sequences of Mugilidae family available at NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnological Information) along with the barcode data generated from Mugilidae fishes of Parangipettai coastal waters. The average GC content of Mugilidae was found to be 46.46%. Crenimugil crenilabis showed less GC content (44.55%) whereas Liza macrolepis showed high GC content (48.53%) among the mullet species studied. The phylogenetic and genetic distance data showed that Mugil platanus and M. liza represent the continuum of same species. Among the members of family Mugilidae, the genus Mugil might possibly contains more haplotype diversity as revealed by intra-species genetic distance data. Species within genera of Mugilidae family invariably clustered in single clade with high bootstrap value. We conclude that partial COI sequencing (barcoding) in identifying the members of the family and that way has resolved the taxonomic ambiguity among the members of the family Mugilidae.
 
 
 
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