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Articles by B Zhang
Total Records ( 5 ) for B Zhang
  C Cordiglieri , F Odoardi , B Zhang , M Nebel , N Kawakami , W. E. F Klinkert , D Lodygin , F Luhder , E Breunig , D Schild , V. K Ulaganathan , K Dornmair , W Dammermann , B. V. L Potter , A. H Guse and A. Flugel

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate represents a newly identified second messenger in T cells involved in antigen receptor-mediated calcium signalling. Its function in vivo is, however, unknown due to the lack of biocompatible inhibitors. Using a recently developed inhibitor, we explored the role of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate in autoreactive effector T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that calcium signalling controlled by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate is relevant for the pathogenic potential of autoimmune effector T cells. Live two photon imaging and molecular analyses revealed that nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate signalling regulates T cell motility and re-activation upon arrival in the nervous tissues. Treatment with the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate inhibitor significantly reduced both the number of stable arrests of effector T cells and their invasive capacity. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 were strongly diminished. Consecutively, the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis were ameliorated. In vitro, antigen-triggered T cell proliferation and cytokine production were evenly suppressed. These inhibitory effects were reversible: after wash-out of the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate antagonist, the effector T cells fully regained their functions. The nicotinic acid derivative BZ194 induced this transient state of non-responsiveness specifically in post-activated effector T cells. Naïve and long-lived memory T cells, which express lower levels of the putative nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate receptor, type 1 ryanodine receptor, were not targeted. T cell priming and recall responses in vivo were not reduced. These data indicate that the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate/calcium signalling pathway is essential for the recruitment and the activation of autoaggressive effector T cells within their target organ. Interference with this signalling pathway suppresses the formation of autoimmune inflammatory lesions and thus might qualify as a novel strategy for the treatment of T cell mediated autoimmune diseases.

  X Yang , B Zhang , C Molony , E Chudin , K Hao , J Zhu , A Gaedigk , C Suver , H Zhong , J. S Leeder , F. P Guengerich , S. C Strom , E Schuetz , T. H Rushmore , R. G Ulrich , J. G Slatter , E. E Schadt , A Kasarskis and P. Y. Lum

Liver cytochrome P450s (P450s) play critical roles in drug metabolism, toxicology, and metabolic processes. Despite rapid progress in the understanding of these enzymes, a systematic investigation of the full spectrum of functionality of individual P450s, the interrelationship or networks connecting them, and the genetic control of each gene/enzyme is lacking. To this end, we genotyped, expression-profiled, and measured P450 activities of 466 human liver samples and applied a systems biology approach via the integration of genetics, gene expression, and enzyme activity measurements. We found that most P450s were positively correlated among themselves and were highly correlated with known regulators as well as thousands of other genes enriched for pathways relevant to the metabolism of drugs, fatty acids, amino acids, and steroids. Genome-wide association analyses between genetic polymorphisms and P450 expression or enzyme activities revealed sets of SNPs associated with P450 traits, and suggested the existence of both cis-regulation of P450 expression (especially for CYP2D6) and more complex trans-regulation of P450 activity. Several novel SNPs associated with CYP2D6 expression and enzyme activity were validated in an independent human cohort. By constructing a weighted coexpression network and a Bayesian regulatory network, we defined the human liver transcriptional network structure, uncovered subnetworks representative of the P450 regulatory system, and identified novel candidate regulatory genes, namely, EHHADH, SLC10A1, and AKR1D1. The P450 subnetworks were then validated using gene signatures responsive to ligands of known P450 regulators in mouse and rat. This systematic survey provides a comprehensive view of the functionality, genetic control, and interactions of P450s.

  B Zhang , D. V Faller and S. Wang

An intractable problem impeding breast cancer treatment by the most frequently prescribed endocrine therapy tamoxifen is the inevitable development of resistance, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this loss of responsiveness by breast cancers have been under intense investigation but are not yet fully elucidated. Our recent reports demonstrated that the tumor suppressor heavily methylated in cancers 1 (HIC1) plays an essential role in growth suppression mediated by external stimuli. We report here that novel tumor suppressor HIC1 is required for growth suppression by estrogen antagonists in breast cancer cells. We also find that HIC1 expression is dramatically induced by exposure to estrogen antagonists in sensitive cells, via a c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and prohibitin-mediated signaling pathway. This induction is lost in spontaneously antagonist-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, reintroducing HIC1 into resistant breast cancer cells restored their sensitivity to the estrogen antagonists, indicating the existence of a novel regulatory mechanism for growth control of breast cancer cells.

  O Van Aken , B Zhang , C Carrie , V Uggalla , E Paynter , E Giraud and J. Whelan

To obtain a global overview of how mitochondria respond to stress, we aimed to define the plant mitochondrial stress response (MSR). By combining a set of 1196 Arabidopsis thaliana genes that putatively encode mitochondrial proteins with 16 microarray experiments on stress-related conditions, 45 nuclear encoded genes were defined as widely stress-responsive. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion assays, the mitochondrial targeting of a large number of these proteins was tested, confirming in total 26 proteins as mitochondrially targeted. Several of these proteins were observed to be dual targeted to mitochondria and plastids, including the small heat shock proteins sHSP23.5 and sHSP23.6. In addition to the well defined stress components of mitochondria, such as alternative oxidases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) dehydrogenases, and heat shock proteins, a variety of other proteins, many with unknown function, were identified. The mitochondrial carrier protein family was over-represented in the stress-responsive genes, suggesting that stress induces altered needs for metabolite transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Although the genes encoding many of these proteins contain common cis-acting regulatory elements, it was apparent that a number of distinct regulatory processes or signals likely triggered the MSR. Therefore, these genes provide new model systems to study mitochondrial retrograde regulation, in addition to the widely used alternative oxidase model. Additionally, as changes in proteins responsive to stress did not correlate well with changes at a transcript level, it suggests that post-transcriptional mechanisms also play an important role in defining the MSR.

  H Xu , B Zhang , J Li , H Chen , J Tooley and F. K. Ghishan

Sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHEs) play a major role in Na+ absorption, cell volume regulation, and intracellular pH regulation. Of the nine identified mammalian NHEs, three (NHE2, NHE3, and NHE8) are localized on the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the small intestine and the kidney. Although the regulation of NHE2 and NHE3 expression has been extensively studied in the past decade, little is known about the regulation of NHE8 gene expression under physiological conditions. The current studies were performed to explore the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on NHE8 expression during intestinal maturation. Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were isolated from intestinal epithelia, and Western blot analysis was performed to determine NHE8 protein expression of sucking male rats treated with EGF. Real-time PCR was used to quantitate NHE8 mRNA expression in rats and Caco-2 cells. Human NHE8 promoter activity was characterized through transfection of Caco-2 cells. Gel mobility shift assays (GMSAs) were used to identify the promoter sequences and the transcriptional factors involved in EGF-mediated regulation. Our results showed that intestinal NHE8 mRNA expression was decreased in EGF-treated rats and Caco-2 cells, and NHE8 protein abundance was also decreased in EGF-treated rats. The activity of the human NHE8 gene promoter transfected in Caco-2 cells was also reduced by EGF treatment. This could be explained by reduced binding of transcription factor Sp3 on the NHE8 basal promoter region in the presence of EGF. Pretreatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor UO-126 could prevent EGF-mediated inhibition of NHE8 gene expression. In conclusion, this study showed that EGF inhibits NHE8 gene expression through reducing its basal transcription, suggesting an important role of EGF in regulating NHE expression during intestinal maturation.

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