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Articles by B Yu
Total Records ( 5 ) for B Yu
  Y Wu , W Zhang , Y Yang , B Yu and A. Huang
 

In this study, we scanned the whole hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome for the identification of potential regulatory elements located on the S-(+)-strand. With pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 as template which contains 1.3-fold HBV whole genome, HBV fragments were amplified by PCR methods, and then inserted into the upstream of a heterologous luciferase reporter vector (pGL3control) in antisense orientation, allowing the HBV expression from the S-(+)-strand. We found that the reporter plasmid containing nt 509-1(3182)-2639 of HBV inhibited luciferase gene transcription and expression in HepG2 cells. Our results strongly suggested that nt 453–250 of HBV may act as a novel negative regulatory element, which has not been reported before. Serial deletion analyses further indicated that nt 453–250 sequence of HBV genome would be the minimal sequence essential for the inhibitory effect of the novel negative regulatory element.

  K. A Cronin , D. L Miglioretti , M Krapcho , B Yu , B. M Geller , P. A Carney , T Onega , E. J Feuer , N Breen and R. Ballard Barbash
 

Background: Self-reported screening behaviors from national surveys often overestimate screening use, and the amount of overestimation may vary by demographic characteristics. We examine self-report bias in mammography screening rates overall, by age, and by race/ethnicity.

Methods: We use mammography registry data (1999-2000) from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium to estimate the validity of self-reported mammography screening collected by two national surveys. First, we compare mammography use from 1999 to 2000 for a geographically defined population (Vermont) with self-reported rates in the prior two years from the 2000 Vermont Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We then use a screening dissemination simulation model to assess estimates of mammography screening from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey.

Results: Self-report estimates of mammography use in the prior 2 years from the Vermont Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System are 15 to 25 percentage points higher than actual screening rates across age groups. The differences in National Health Interview Survey screening estimates from models are similar for women 40 to 49 and 50 to 59 years and greater than for those 60 to 69, or 70 to 79 (27 and 26 percentage points versus 14, and 14, respectively). Overreporting is highest among African American women (24.4 percentage points) and lowest among Hispanic women (17.9) with non-Hispanic White women in between (19.3). Values of sensitivity and specificity consistent with our results are similar to previous validation studies of mammography.

Conclusion: Overestimation of self-reported mammography usage from national surveys varies by age and race/ethnicity. A more nuanced approach that accounts for demographic differences is needed when adjusting for overestimation or assessing disparities between populations. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1699–705)

  S. L Sheng , G Huang , B Yu and W. X. Qin
 

Background: Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a secreted protein, is known as a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which has been implicated in the development of several types of cancers. Clinical significance of serum DKK1 in lung cancer remains to be determined.

Methods: A novel time-resolved immunofluorometric assay was developed. By use of this method, we investigated the serum concentrations of DKK1 in 592 patients with malignancies, 72 patients with benign lung disease, and 120 healthy controls. Serum cytokeratin 19 fragment and neuron-specific enolase values were obtained.

Results: Serum DKK1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer than in patients with other malignant tumors or benign lung diseases and healthy controls. Serum concentrations of DKK1 were decreased significantly in groups of patients with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical adenocarcinoma compared with healthy controls. Application of both DKK1 and cytokeratin 19 fragment increased sensitivity, correctly identifying 89.6% of the non–small cell lung cancer patients as positive. The use of both DKK1 and neuron-specific enolase increased sensitivity to detect small cell lung cancer to 86.2%. DKK1 concentrations increased with stage, tumor class, and presence of lymph node and distant metastases, regardless of histology and patient age and sex. Patients with a DKK1 concentration of 22.6 µg/L or higher had a statistically significantly diminished survival compared with patients whose DKK1 values were lower.

Conclusions: DKK1 was preferentially expressed in lung cancer. Increasing concentrations of DKK1were significantly associated with tumor progression and decreased survival in patients with lung cancer. .

  B Zheng , Z Wang , S Li , B Yu , J. Y Liu and X. Chen
 

Intergenic transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is widespread in plant and animal genomes, but the functions of intergenic transcription or the resulting noncoding transcripts are poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis Pol II is indispensable for endogenous siRNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) at intergenic low-copy-number loci, despite the presence of two other polymerases—Pol IV and Pol V—that specialize in TGS through siRNAs. We show that Pol II produces noncoding scaffold transcripts that originate outside of heterochromatic, siRNA-generating loci. Through these transcripts and physical interactions with the siRNA effector protein ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4), Pol II recruits AGO4/siRNAs to homologous loci to result in TGS. Meanwhile, Pol II transcription also recruits Pol IV and Pol V to different locations at heterochromatic loci to promote siRNA biogenesis and siRNA-mediated TGS, respectively. This study establishes that intergenic transcription by Pol II is required for siRNA-mediated TGS, and reveals an intricate collaboration and division of labor among the three polymerases in gene silencing.

  D. C Herman , J. A Onate , P. S Weinhold , K. M Guskiewicz , W. E Garrett , B Yu and D. A. Padua
  Background:

Feedback instruction is a proven modality for the alteration of motion patterns. There are no existing data on the contribution of strength training, when combined with feedback instruction, to the altering of lower extremity biomechanics.

Hypothesis:

Lower extremity muscle strength training provides an increased capacity to alter knee and hip biomechanics during a stop-jump task in response to a feedback protocol.

Study Design:

Controlled laboratory study.

Methods:

Knee and hip 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected for 58 female recreational athletes while performing 3 stop-jump tasks after completing a 9-week strength training program (ST-FB; n = 29) or a 9-week period of no strength training (FB; n = 29). Data were then collected for both groups after completing a jump-landing feedback instruction protocol. Knee and hip joint angles, as well as resultant forces and moments, were calculated.

Results:

Across all participants, there were decreased peak vertical ground-reaction forces (P < .001) and increased knee flexion (P = .050), hip flexion (P < .001), and hip abduction (P = .032) angles, subsequent to the feedback protocol. Hip abduction angle (P < .001) increased in the ST-FB group but not the FB group, and peak knee anterior shear force (P = .015) decreased in the ST-FB group but increased in the FB group (P = .009).

Conclusion:

The results indicate that strength training, when used in conjunction with video-assisted feedback, may provide an increased capacity for the alteration of knee and hip biomechanics.

Clinical Relevance:

Programs that include both strength training and movement education through feedback may be necessary to increase the effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament prevention programs. Strength training may provide an increased capacity for athletes to respond to other intervention modalities used in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

 
 
 
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