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Articles by B Thorens
Total Records ( 2 ) for B Thorens
  B Thorens and M. Mueckler
 

The ability to take up and metabolize glucose at the cellular level is a property shared by the vast majority of existing organisms. Most mammalian cells import glucose by a process of facilitative diffusion mediated by members of the Glut (SLC2A) family of membrane transport proteins. Fourteen Glut proteins are expressed in the human and they include transporters for substrates other than glucose, including fructose, myoinositol, and urate. The primary physiological substrates for at least half of the 14 Glut proteins are either uncertain or unknown. The well-established glucose transporter isoforms, Gluts 1–4, are known to have distinct regulatory and/or kinetic properties that reflect their specific roles in cellular and whole body glucose homeostasis. Separate review articles on many of the Glut proteins have recently appeared in this journal. Here, we provide a very brief summary of the known properties of the 14 Glut proteins and suggest some avenues of future investigation in this area.

  J Petremand , N Bulat , A. C Butty , C Poussin , S Rutti , K Au , S Ghosh , V Mooser , B Thorens , J. Y Yang , C Widmann and G. Waeber
 

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect pancreatic β-cells against apoptosis. This property might relate to the increased risk to develop diabetes in patients with low HDL blood levels. However, the mechanisms by which HDLs protect β-cells are poorly characterized. Here we used a transcriptomic approach to identify genes differentially modulated by HDLs in β-cells subjected to apoptotic stimuli. The transcript encoding 4E-binding protein (4E-BP)1 was up-regulated by serum starvation, and HDLs blocked this increase. 4E-BP1 inhibits cap-dependent translation in its non- or hypophosphorylated state but it loses this ability when hyperphosphorylated. At the protein level, 4E-BP1 was also up-regulated in response to starvation and IL-1β, and this was blunted by HDLs. Whereas an ectopic increase of 4E-BP1 expression induced β-cell death, silencing 4E-BP1 increase with short hairpin RNAs inhibited the apoptotic-inducing capacities of starvation. HDLs can therefore protect β-cells by blocking 4E-BP1 protein expression, but this is not the sole protective mechanism activated by HDLs. Indeed, HDLs blocked apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress with no associated decrease in total 4E-BP1 induction. Although, HDLs favored the phosphorylation, and hence the inactivation of 4E-BP1 in these conditions, this appeared not to be required for HDL protection. Our results indicate that HDLs can protect β-cells through modulation of 4E-BP1 depending on the type of stress stimuli.

 
 
 
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