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Articles by B Lee
Total Records ( 4 ) for B Lee
  B Lee , J. R Lee and S. Na

The administration of short-acting opioids can be a reliable and safe method to prevent coughing during emergence from anaesthesia but the proper dose or effect site concentration of remifentanil for this purpose has not been reported. We therefore investigated the effect site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil for preventing cough during emergence from anaesthesia with propofol–remifentanil target-controlled infusion.


Twenty-three ASA I–II grade female patients, aged 23–66 yr undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled in this study. EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil for preventing cough were determined using Dixon's up-and-down method and probit analysis. Propofol effect site concentration at extubation, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate (HR) were compared in patients with smooth emergence and without smooth emergence.


Three out of 11 patients with remifentanil Ce of 1.5 ng ml–1 and all seven patients with Ce of 2.0 ng ml–1 did not cough during emergence; the EC50 of remifentanil that suppressed coughing was 1.46 ng ml–1 by Dixon's up-and-down method, and EC95 was 2.14 ng ml–1 by probit analysis. Effect site concentration of propofol at awakening was similar in patients with a smooth emergence and those without smooth emergence, but HR and arterial pressure were higher in those who coughed during emergence. Clinically significant hypoventilation was not seen in any patient.


We found that the EC95 of effect site concentration of remifentanil to suppress coughing at emergence from anaesthesia was 2.14 ng ml–1. Maintaining an established Ce of remifentanil is a reliable method of abolishing cough and thereby targeting smooth emergence from anaesthesia.

  S. M Ahn , T. H Kim , S Lee , D Kim , H Ghang , D. S Kim , B. C Kim , S. Y Kim , W. Y Kim , C Kim , D Park , Y. S Lee , S Kim , R Reja , S Jho , C. G Kim , J. Y Cha , K. H Kim , B Lee , J Bhak and S. J. Kim

We present the first Korean individual genome sequence (SJK) and analysis results. The diploid genome of a Korean male was sequenced to 28.95-fold redundancy using the Illumina paired-end sequencing method. SJK covered 99.9% of the NCBI human reference genome. We identified 420,083 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are not in the dbSNP database. Despite a close similarity, significant differences were observed between the Chinese genome (YH), the only other Asian genome available, and SJK: (1) 39.87% (1,371,239 out of 3,439,107) SNPs were SJK-specific (49.51% against Venter's, 46.94% against Watson's, and 44.17% against the Yoruba genomes); (2) 99.5% (22,495 out of 22,605) of short indels (< 4 bp) discovered on the same loci had the same size and type as YH; and (3) 11.3% (331 out of 2920) deletion structural variants were SJK-specific. Even after attempting to map unmapped reads of SJK to unanchored NCBI scaffolds, HGSV, and available personal genomes, there were still 5.77% SJK reads that could not be mapped. All these findings indicate that the overall genetic differences among individuals from closely related ethnic groups may be significant. Hence, constructing reference genomes for minor socio-ethnic groups will be useful for massive individual genome sequencing.

  J Zhu , B Lee , K. K Buhman and J. X. Cheng

The absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, are not generally thought of as a cell type that stores triacylglycerols (TGs) in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs). We revisit TG metabolism in enterocytes by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of small intestine of mice during dietary fat absorption (DFA). We directly visualized the presence of LDs in enterocytes. We determined lipid amount and quantified LD number and size as a function of intestinal location and time post-lipid challenge via gavage feeding. The LDs were confirmed to be primarily TG by biochemical analysis. Combined CARS and fluorescence imaging indicated that the large LDs were located in the cytoplasm, associated with the tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa. Furthermore, in vivo CARS imaging showed real-time variation in the amount of TG stored in LDs through the process of DFA. Our results highlight a dynamic, cytoplasmic TG pool in enterocytes that may play previously unexpected roles in processes, such as regulating postprandial blood TG concentrations.

  D. H Kim , J Lee , B Lee and J. W. Lee

Activating signal cointegrator-2 (ASC-2), a coactivator of multiple nuclear receptors and transcription factors, belongs to a steady-state complex named ASCOM (for ASC-2 complex), which contains histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase MLL3 or its paralog MLL4. ASC-2 binds to many nuclear receptors in a ligand-dependent manner through its two LxxLL motifs. Here we show that the first LxxLL motif of ASC-2 shows relatively weak but specific interaction with the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and that ASCOM plays crucial roles in FXR transactivation. Our results reveal that ASC-2, MLL3, and MLL4 are recruited to FXR target genes in a ligand-dependent manner. We further show that the recruitment of MLL3 requires ASC-2 and that FXR ligand induces not only expression of FXR-target genes but also their H3K4 trimethylation in a manner dependent on the presence of ASC-2, MLL3, and MLL4. In addition, MLL3 and MLL4 function redundantly with FXR transactivation. Correspondingly, expression of FXR target genes is partially impaired in mice expressing an enzymatically inactivated mutant form of MLL3, and these mice show disrupted bile acid homeostasis. Overall, these results suggest that ASCOM-MLL3 and ASCOM-MLL4 play redundant but essential roles in FXR transactivation via their H3K4 trimethylation activity.

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