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Articles by Azad Reza Mansourian
Total Records ( 15 ) for Azad Reza Mansourian
  Abdoljalal Marjani , Azad Reza Mansourian , Gholam Reza Veghari and Mohammad Reza Rabiee
  Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain this differences. Therefore we propose that older Fars and Turkmen people may have elevated requirement for antioxidants. Supplementation with vitamin or dietary free radical scavengers such as vitamin E and C or foodstuff containing these such as tomatoes, oranges and similars have a potential role in boosting antioxidant related defenses and may be important for older people of two ethnic groups.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Thyroid and liver are among two vital and important organs which are interrelated in health and disease. The cooperation of thyroid and liver is extremely vital for a proper functional behavior for both thyroid and liver. Liver crucial role in the basic metabolic rate, growth and development is due to the liver ability to transfer the thyroid hormone and deliver it to the various organs intracellular due to thyroid hormone transporting system which is mediated by the liver. Thyrotoxicosis defined as the clinical manifestation of hyperthyroidism, a symptom with various adverse effects on the liver, heart, vascular, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. There are many reports demonstrating the negative side effect of hyperthyroidism on liver function tests which occur due to the accompanying clinical manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. In severe form of hyperthyroidism in addition to liver biochemical alteration and elevated liver enzymes, damages to hepatocytes will occur. Therefore it is strongly recommended that subjects with either of hyperthyroid or liver dysfunction should be carefully examined simultaneously for both organs to have a clear cut diagnosis and to assist the patient with proper therapeutically treatments.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Laboratory measurements of thyroid hormones arises from the fact that the patients origin of diseases in many cases cannot be distinguished based only on clinical examination alone and it can be diagnosed by the laboratory assessment. Although, Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is the single unique hormone which is able to predict the thyroid status but the TSH measurement by itself sometimes can be misguiding and prevent the full understanding of thyroid patient. Laboratory evaluation of thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroxine (T4) are the least thyroid hormones although there are many other thyroid related parameters which can be measured, if their evaluation was recommended by the physician. There are many reports in the medical circle on the possible misdiagnosis and eventual mistreatment if the proper clinical cooperation between the physicians and clinical laboratory is either disrupted or mistrusted. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of close correlation between physician and clinical laboratory to prevent any possible medical mistake. The application of proper methods and techniques and specific requirement of age and gender reference intervals in the laboratory for the thyroid hormones measurements is strongly recommended to have the full confidence of the physician and to avoid misdiagnosis and eventual mistreatments of patients involved.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  The definition of non-thyroidal illness arises from the fact that thyroid hormones within blood circulation is reduced not due to the malfunction of thyroid organ, but it is mamifested from disorders of other organs. Clinical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases mainly myocardial infraction, sepsis, surgery and many other chronic and sever diseases are associated with thyroid hormones reduction. Serum T3 concentration is reduced during non-thyroidal illness, but serum T4 concentration is seemed to be raised in most of the cases, which is due to the inhibition of T4 conversion into T3 as result of reduced activity of deidoniase enzyme. It seems the reduction in the T3 concentration do not exhibit neither any negative side effects in metabolism nor any irreversible harm in patient involved. There is not any suggestion that hypothyroidism originated from non-thyroidal illness can be rapidly leads to fatal outcome but such low reduction in thyrod hormones and particularly T3 can be considered as a key factor for the initiating the medical attendance and the necessary steps to prevent further clinical complication.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Thyroid disorders usually associated with lipid abnormalities. Overt hypothyroidism is a state with thyroid hormone deficiency. Sub clinical hypothyroidism is defined as condition, in which thyroid stimulating hormone concentration elevated when serum thyroid hormones are at normal levels. Whether sub-clinical hypothyroidism associated with lipid alteration, it is the main concept behind this study. Although, in this study, we found cases with normal thyroxin and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone are common, but whether the sub-clinical hypothyroidism finally converted to overt hypothyroidism are not universally accepted. The findings also indicated subjects with sub-clinical hypothyroidism usually are accompanied with dyslipidemia and in general the total cholesterol level is higher among sub-clinical hypothyroid patients, with eventual risk of arthrosclerosis. This study indicated that there is not a common findings to support the benefit of thyroxin therapy in sub-clinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that it seems sub-clinical hypothyroidism is a common thyroid abnormality which can be diagnosed by the medical diagnostic laboratory through thyroid function test and it is mainly accompanied with lipid disorder.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  The immune system protect individual from many pathogens exists within our environment and in human body, by destroying them through molecular and cellular mechanism of B and T cells of immune system. Autoimmunity is an adverse relation of immune system against non- foreign substances leaving behind either alters the normal function or destroying the tissue involved. Autoimmunity occur in genetically predispose persons with familial connections. The autoimmunity to the thyroid gland mainly consists of Hashimato thyroiditis and Grave's disease, the two end of spectrum in thyroid function of hypo and hyperactivity, respectively. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, thyroglobuline, enzymes of thyroid hormones synthesis are targeted by autoantibodies and cell- mediated reactions. The aim of this review is to explore the studies reported on the autoimmunity to the thyroid gland.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Thyrotoxicosis exhibit collective clinical manifestation, caused by excessive serum thyroid hormones particularity thyroxin. The clinical signs and symptoms included general alteration of metabolic process leading to weight loss fatigue and weakness and some specific disorders such as cardiovascular, neuromuscular reproductive gastrointestinal dermatological and bone disorders. The diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis relay on the thyroid function test carried out by the laboratory serum measurement of thyroxin, triidothyuronin and thyroid stimulating hormones accompanied by other para-medical examinations suggested by clinicians and endociologicst. In thyrotoxicosis serum level of thyroid hormones and thyroxin in particular elevated accompanied by pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone suppression reaching to undetectable level in sever thyrotoxicosis. Among the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis are, thyroid autoimmunitiy diseases thyroid toxic, adenoma toxic nodular and multinodular hyperthyroidism. The main aim behind this review is to explore the clinical manifestation, the causative factors, diagnosis, metabolic disorder occur due to thyrotoxicosis.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a vital thyrocyte membrane protein in the thyroid gland. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) which is a pituitary hormone is the main stimulator of thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, it binds with high affinity to the TSHR through weak bonds including hydrophobic, ionic, hydrogen bonds and trigger the initial steps in thyroid gland stimulation to produce the related hormones. This study was carried out at department of biochemistry of Golestan university of medical sciences. All the related articles related to TSHR modification happened due to mutations and any other alterations which affect the level of TSH-TSHR complex were studied and the main points were extracted out of the pile of information and were organized as present review. TSH-TSHR is the initial and vital step of a long process of thyroid hormone production within the thyroid gland. Any alteration on the TSH-TSHR affinity which may happen due to the direct effect of TSHR modification eventually lead to the serious adverse effects of either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism if the TSH-TSHR level are suppressed or elevated, respectively. The prime cause of the thyroid disorders relay on the possible modification on the biochemical structure of TSHR with subsequent alteration on the level of TSH-TSHR complex. TSHR mutation accompanied by biochemical modification, unable it to bind properly to TSH. In some other conditions such mutation leave a TSHR with either of higher affinity towards to TSH or even TSHR which can be activated in the absence of TSH. The structural modification of TSHR and alteration in the level of TSH-TSHR in the thyroid gland eventually lead to thyroid disorders either of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG), some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Iodine is in the crucial parts of two hormones of T4 and T3 produced by the thyroid glands which are essential for all the aspects of human metabolisms. It is demonstrated that iodine deficiency can be considered as sole cause of many thyroid abnormalities including mental disorders. Iodine deficiency of sufficient degree to cause hypothyroidism during fetus life and early infancy will be accompanied with brain abnormality possibly to the stage of mental retardation. The iodine deficiency among subjects in their early stage of childhood is not as severe as those in their fetus or infancy. In adult subjects the sever iodine deficiency can be also associated with mental disorders due to the direct side effects of hypothyroidism occurred by lack of iodine. The clinical manifestation of iodine deficiency show itself with psychological disorders in adult subjects. The status of iodine within blood can be evaluated through measurement of urinary iodine level and the low urinary concentration is an indicative of hypothyroidism. Mental retardation and brain damage due to iodine deficiency can be prevented if iodine supplementation prescribed duly on time.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Thyroid hormones play an important role on the physiological chemistry of heart and vascular systems in healthy subjects. Any thyroid disorders accompanied with alteration of effective concentration of thyroid hormones cause heart dysfunctions. Thyrotoxicosis is a term given for the clinical manifestation of hyperthyroidism which can invoke heart and vascular abnormalities through the mechanism at heart muscle cells nuclear level. Thyrotoxicosis can play positive roles for heart disorders including atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular systolic dysfunction, which are considered as major risk factors for heart abnormalities. Miscalculation of heart dysfunctions related thyrotoxicosis in cardiovascular patients might be avoided through careful laboratory measurements of T4 and T3 to exclude any possible thyroid hormone-related heart diseases.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Thyroid produce two important hormone of thyroxine or tetraidothyronine (T4) and triidothyronine (T3), which are involved in whole aspect of metabolism. T4 and T3 play vital role in all biochemical function, growth and development in human body. The basic metabolic pathways in kidney and every organ in human controlled by these hormones. T4 and T3 are involved in kidney function in health and diseases condition therefore the pathophysiology of kidney can be directly influenced and regulated by thyroid hormones. Kidney growth, haemodynamic, blood circulation, tubular, electrolyte balance and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are among such crucial process. Hypothyroidism which accompanied with reduced thyroid hormone production adversely affect the renal functions, development and eventually leading to reduced weight, kidney vascular disorders, electrolyte, tubular transport imbalances, lower filtration rate and other adverse consequences of hypothyroidism. On other hand kidney diseases can also disrupt the thyroid function metabolism resulting in the subsequent hypothyroidism. It is an interesting subject in how thyroid and kidney in health and diseases closely interacted. For the ideal clinical follow up of either of thyroid and renal diseases the two organs should be simultaneously examined for a proper patient management. Close correlation of thyroid and kidney clinical teams are essential to check the cross reactions and adverse interactions which might be produced between these two vital organs to avoid misdiagnosis either of thyroid or kidney abnormalities.
  Ali Reza Ahmadi , Hamid Reza Joshaghani , Azad Reza Mansourian , Aref Salehi and Nasser Behnampour
  Arthrosclerosis considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in industrial and developing countries. The rate of myocardial infarction in some countries is about 2 million annually with 1/4 of them is leading to death. This study was a case-control research, which was carried out as cross-sectional project in two groups, healthy and case subjects. The mean age and standard deviation of patients and control groups were nearly equal (55±10). The ELISA technique was applied to measure the serum antibody level. The sample populations in each group were exactly the same (120 person in each group). The gender distribution in case and control group was 44 female, 76 male and 45 female and 75 male, respectively. The Mean±SD of IgM in case group and control groups were 3.10± 2.54 and 1.54±1.00, respectively. The Mean±SD for IgG in case and control groups were 5.90±3.84 and 3.08±1.95, respectively. The differences, between the mean of IgM and IgG in two groups of cases and control statistically were significant (p = 0.0001). In case group the Mean±SD for IgM for men and woman were 2.98±1.97 and 3.17±2.83, respectively, which this differences statistically, were not significant. In case group the Mean±SD for IgG were 5.14±3.45 and 6.35. The above findings indicated that the average of both IgG and IgM are higher among men compared to women. Due to high prevalence of acute coronary syndrome in Iran, the determination of anticardiolipin antibody (IgG) are applied for suspected acute coronary syndrome patients and further prevention measure should be taken for patient with higher serum anticardiolipin antibody.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  Proper thyroid function is vital to have a healthy reproduction system. Female sex hormones are altered due to hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Female reproduction system is negatively manipulated by both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and menstrual disorders are the ultimate concequences. Hypomenorrhea, polymenorrhea and oligomenorrhea are the clinical manifestation associated with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, respectively. The female infertility is also adversely affected by thyrotoxicosis and myxedema, the clinical presentation of hyper and hypothyroidism. The simultaneous existence of autoimmunity which is present among some portion of pregnant women may aggravate the clinical manifestation of thyroid disorders in female reproductive physiology. Abortion, premature infants, low birth infant, are among clinical presentation of overt hypothyroidism. Auto antibody against thyroid stimulating hormone receptor and eventual hyperthyroidism considered as risk factors which require extra attention while the thyroid disorder is clinically managed during pregnancy to prevent the fetus from abnormal metabolism. The aim of this review is to elaborate the adverse role of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in female reproduction physiology.
  Azad Reza Mansourian
  The healthy thyroid is vital for the liver metabolism. The liver also plays an important role in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. Thyroid and liver diseases can apparently have an adverse effects on each other organs. The main concept behind this present review is to analyze the coordination existed among thyroid and liver and the pathophysiology surrounding these two vital organs in human metabolism.
 
 
 
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