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Articles by Awang Bono
Total Records ( 11 ) for Awang Bono
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Awang Bono , Rosalam Sarbatly and Siti Fadhilah
  Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure 19.8 MPa and temperature 51°C with different amount of ethanol (0-100 mL) was studied the extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernel cake. The amount of oil produced from SFE and Modified ethanol-CO2 are proportional to the amount of ethanol. It was found that α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, sterols and fatty acid such lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid were present in all of the palm kernel oil sample.
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Rosalam Sarbatly , D.M.R. Prasad and Awang Bono
  The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia) and contained high proportions of ash content (20.56- 40.5%). The green and brown seaweeds ash content (37.27-40.5%) was higher than the red seaweeds (20.56-22.41%). The iron content was rich in the sequence of Gelidiella>Caulerpa> Sargassum> Eucheuma and its range was found to be 6.6-10.94 mg/100 g dry weight. The major seasonal deviation was found to be 9.25% Mg, 6.44% Ca and 5.3% Fe. This study was conducted to create a nutritional data for consumption and utilization in the industry.
  Collin G. Joseph , Awang Bono , Duduku Krishnaiah , Chow Yee Ling and Ng Chiew Ban
  The aim of this investigation was to study the morphology and sorption kinetic studies of an L-type activated carbon prepared from Oil Palm Shells (OPS) by way of the two stage activation method in self-generated atmosphere using a muffle furnace. Both L-type dehydrating agents, zinc chloride and phosphoric acid were used as the chemical activation agent. For the ZnCl2 samples, the optimum adsorption capacity was obtained when the samples were subjected to semi-carbonization of 400°C, 5 M ZnCl2 impregnating solution, followed by pyrolysis at 400°C. Whereas for the H3PO4 samples, semi-carbonization of 400°C followed by 4.5 M H3PO4 impregnating solution and pyrolysis at 400°C has shown to produced the optimum adsorption capacity. All activated carbons were fitted well in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetics. These results demonstrated that this agricultural waste has the potential to be converted into high-capacity adsorbent for the remediation of waste waters.
  Reddy Prasad , Duduku Krishnaiah , Awang Bono , Paulraj Pandiyan , Rosli Bin Mohd Yunus and Naveena Lakshmi
  The application of Artificial Neural Networks in chemical engineering field is being under immense research. One of the physical properties of every material has its own intensity to absorb the sound waves. Carrageenans are water-soluble gums, which occur in certain species of red seaweeds. They are sulfated natural polymers made up of galactose units. Carrageenan consists of a main chain of D-galactose residues linked alternately α - (1→3) and β - (1→4). The decibel frequency analyzer dbFA - 32 has been used for this analysis. The sound signals are captured using the hydrophone. The analog signals are then digitized at different octave frequencies. These are used to generate the frequency power spectrum. The change in the spectrum is proportional to the concentration of the material in the solution. The normalized data is used as a input to a feed forward neural network model. In this study, a simple scheme is proposed to estimate the amount of carrageenan present in a solution using under water acoustics and Artificial Neural Networks. This method is useful for the direct estimation of carrageenan in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It can be useful for online measurement of compound in the industries.
  Awang Bono , Oh Pin Pin and Chin Peng Jiun
  Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these raw materials result in nature as complex mixtures of triglycerides, alcohols and other esters. Alternatively, common edible oils used are sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm and palm kernel oil. Crude fatty acids can be obtained from the process of hydrolysis and will be purified through total distillation. Due to fatty acid market demand, the purity requirement of distillated fatty acid products is increasing greatly. Since desired purity of fatty acid is achievable through the most common and most efficient means of fractionation distillation process, study on simulation of fatty acids distillation has a significant contribution to the oleo chemical industry. In this simulation study, the optimization of the tray specification, feed stream pressure and temperature on the purity performance of the fatty acid composition are investigated. In South East Asia, palm tree fruit ripen continuously and can be harvested all year round. Therefore, palm based fatty acids are selected to be used as the feed components. In the present study, binary and multi-component distillations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are studied. This simulation model is developed by using HYSYS simulator with suitable thermodynamic package chosen. A shortcut simulation method is built in advanced for preliminary estimations and for determining rigorous operating limits. Eventually, parametric optimization is performed to obtain the optimum operating conditions of the rigorous distillation column.
  Awang Bono , Yan Yan Farm , Suhaimi Md. Yasir , Buhri Arifin and M. Nurkhairi Jasni
  Spray drying technique is a common industrial process in the production of powder and granules from liquid materials. The advantage of spray drying technique is not only in the ability to control the product particle size, but also good for the ability of retaining and protecting some of volatile compounds. Since, major content of seaweed is of liquid compounds, therefore, the production of seaweed powder using a spray drying technique was considered an appropriate process technique. In this study, a study on production of powder from Sabah Green Seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) was conducted. A laboratory scale spray dryer (Lab Plant SD-05) was used as the main equipment for the powder production. The experimental study was conducted at various processes operating conditions and the powders produced were analyzed for moisture content, particle size and antioxidant activity. Experimental result obtained show that there are correlation between powders size, antioxidant activity and moisture content with process operation conditions. The result show that the particle size and the antioxidant activity of the powder increases with the rise of spray drying inlet temperature, whereas the moisture contents has inverse relationship to the inlet temperature. This works shown that the spray drying technique can be considered for the production of seaweed powder.
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Rosalam Sarbatly , Awang Bono , S.M. Anisuzzaman and Sharmila Subramaniam
  Transesterification of methyl ester is a reversible reaction and requires excess methanol to drive the reaction forward. In this study, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) membrane reactor was used to separate glycerol during reaction, to attain high conversion of palm oil at lower methanol to oil ratio. Thus reduces the amount of methanol used. The transesterification of palm oil was performed using base catalyst. Experiments were performed in the membrane reactor in batch mode at different catalyst concentrations and different molar ratio (methanol/oil). Asymmetric polyethersulfone ultrafiltration flat sheet membranes with Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) of different molecular weight as additive were prepared by phase inversion process from casting solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, N,N-porylydone (NMP) as solvent and PEG of different molecular weights namely PEG 200, PEG 300 and PEG 400 as additives. The results show that PES with different PEG as additive are suitable for separation of glycerol during the reaction.
  S.M. Anisuzzaman , Awang Bono , Duduku Krishnaiah , Norazwinah Azreen Hussin and Hong Ying Wong
  The objective for this work was to study the characteristics of Semi Refined Carageenan (SRC) which extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii. The production of SRC was conducted by alkali treatment of seaweed and to obtain the powder used spray drying technique. This analysis based on two independent parameter which are concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and extraction time. Extraction temperature during alkali treatment process was fixed as constant which was 70-80°C. The optimization of extraction process parameters and the experimental design were done based on Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Gel viscosity, powder weight of SRC, particle size and gel strength were studied as responses. The bounds of all these factors keyed in the RSM to get the predicted number of experiments. Optimum process extractions for spray drying technique result showed at 6.70% of KOH concentration and 74.70 minute extraction time. At optimum conditions the viscosity of the SRC gel was found as 111.80 cP and the particle size of SRC powder was found as 86.88 μm. Gel strength was optimize at 85.60 g cm-2 and SRC powder production as 5.01 g.
  Duduku Krishnaiah , Awang Bono , S.M. Anisuzzaman , Collin Joseph and Teo Bee Khee
  Carbon dioxide (CO2) among other air pollutants is a major culprit to the greenhouse gases that is fueling global warming. To mitigate global warming, Kyoto Protocal urges 37 industrialized nations and European Union to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to a level of 5.2% on average lower than those of 1990 during the period of 2008-2012. It is therefore essential to develop the CCS technologies to cope with the global demand of CO2 reduction. In this study the technologies of CO2 removal are reviewed.
  Awang Bono , Jumat Sulaiman and S. Rajalingam
  The injection molding process is used to produce thin-walled plastic products for a wide variety of applications. However, the difficulty in adjusting optimum process parameters setting may cause defects on injected moulded parts such as shrinkage. A study was conducted for the determination of the optimal injection moulding process parameters which will minimize the shrinkage defect on a thin-shell plastic product for cell phone housing component. The machine process setting in use currently caused shrinkage where variations in the dimensions of the length and width below the specification limit. Therefore the experiment is needed to identify the optimal process parameters that could be set to maintain the length and width dimensions closest to the target value with smallest possible variation. The process parameters selected in this study are the mould temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed. The Response Surface Method (RSM) of analysis was used for the determination of the optimal moulding process parameters. The significant factors affecting the responses were identified from ANOVA. Statistical results and analysis are used to provide better interpretation of the experiment. Verification runs with the optimal process parameter setting found by RSM determined that the shrinkage defect can be minimized.
  Awang Bono , NurAbidah Ramlan , Duduku Krishnaiah , Norina Yadin , Yan Yan Farm and Chi Ming Chu
  Adsorption isotherm is essential component in the understanding of the adsorption process. Several methods of the measurements, analysis and interpretation of adsorption from solution have been reported in the literature. Most of the measurements of adsorption isotherm from solution were involved the measurement of excess isotherm conducted at low region of sorbates concentration. Direct interpretation of excess adsorption isotherm as adsorption isotherm is always been practice. Therefore, in this study, on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm from solution of non-azeotropic organic solvent mixture onto porous adsorbents for whole range of liquid concentration was conducted. The study included the measurement of excess adsorption isotherm using conventional technique. Theoretical analysis and interpretation of adsorption isotherm from the excess isotherm were conducted using Pseudo Ideal Adsorption, Gibbs Dividing Plane Model and Langmuir-Fruendlich binary isotherm model. For organic solvents, acetone and propanol were chosen as the adsorbates due to the non-azeotropic properties in the mixture. Activated carbon and silicalite were chosen as adsorbents due to the different in their porosity such as macro porous and micro porous structure. The result of the study has revealed that the adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic mixture onto activated carbon and silicalite can be interpreted as monolayer type of adsorption.
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