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Articles by Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Brain MRI Study
Total Records ( 1 ) for Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Brain MRI Study
  David S. Knopman , Thomas H. Mosley , Diane J. Catellier , Laura H. Coker and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Brain MRI Study
  Background Strokes, vascular risk factors, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but definitive evidence that these affect cognition as early as middle age is limited. Objective We describe the relationships of APOE genotype, stroke, and vascular risk factors with cognitive change over a 14-year follow-up in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort recruited while in middle age. Methods Participants included a subset of the ARIC Study who underwent assessments of cognitive function and vascular risk factors. Four cognitive assessments were performed between 1990–1992 and 2004–2006. Cognitive assessments included the Delayed Word Recall (DWR) Test, the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) Test, and the Word Fluency (WF) Test. Vascular risk factors were assessed during the baseline visit in 1990–1992. Incident stroke was recorded over the 14 years of follow-up. Results There were 1130 participants (mean age, 59 ± 4.3 [SD] years; 62% women; 52% African-American) with longitudinal data. In multivariate, random-effects linear models adjusted for age, education, gender, and race, the risk factors diabetes and APOE ɛ4 genotype were independently associated with a decline in performance on the DSS test (both P < .005), whereas hypertension and stroke were not. For DWR, stroke and APOE ɛ4 genotype were independent predictors of decline (both P < .001). For the WF test, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and stroke were independently associated with decline (all P < .005). No evidence of differential effects of risk factors on cognitive decline by race, gender, or interactions between risk factors was found. Conclusions The vascular risk factors diabetes and hypertension, a history of stroke itself, and APOE ɛ4 genotype independently contribute to cognitive decline in late middle age and early elderly years.
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