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Articles by Atef M. Al-Attar
Total Records ( 7 ) for Atef M. Al-Attar
  Atef M. Al-Attar
  Problem statement: Hyperlipidemia is well known to play a main role in the development of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by abnormally elevated cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood. It has been recognized for many years that hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infraction, heart attacks and cerebrovascular diseases. In recent years, Coenzyme Q10 has gained considerable attention as a dietary supplement capable of influencing cellular bioenergetics and as a supplementary treatment for some chronic diseases. Approach: The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Coenzyme Q10 supplementation would alter high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemic model in female rats. Sixty female albino rats of the Wistar strain weighing between 34.3 and 42.1 g were used. The experimental animals were divided into six groups. Rats of group 1 served as controls, fed with standard diet and had free access to water for three months. Rats of group 2 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil containing 10 mg of cholesterol/rat for two months. Animals of group 3 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil containing 10 mg of cholesterol/rat for two months and daily supplemented with 1 mg Coenzyme Q10/rat at third month. Rats of group 4 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil /rat for two months. The experimental rats of group 5 were daily supplemented with 1 mL of corn oil /rat for two months and daily supplemented with 1 mg Coenzyme Q10/rat at third month. Rats of group 6 were supplemented with 1 mg Coenzyme Q10/rat at third month. The body weight percentage changes were determined after second and third months in all experimental groups. Results: After 2 months, the maximum changes of body weight were noted in groups treated with high cholesterol diet and corn oil. After three months, the maximum percentage changes were observed in groups two and four and the minimum changes were noted in sixth group supplemented with only Coenzyme Q10 at last period. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-C), Atehrogenic Index (AI) and HDL Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio were assessed at the end of experimental period. Significant increases in the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-C VLDL-C were noted in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet, while the level of HDL-C was significantly reduced. Similar observations were noted in rats treated with high cholesterol diet plus Coenzyme Q10. Statistically, the treatment of Coenzyme Q10 in rats subjected to high cholesterol diet showed a decrease in the change levels of these parameters. Also, the Atehrogenic Index (AI) value was significantly elevated in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet compared with control value. Administration of Coenzyme Q10 for a period of one month to rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet significantly decreased the percentage change of the Atehrogenic Index (IA) value. HDL-C ratio value was significantly decreased in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet compared with control value. Treatment with Coenzyme Q10 for a period of last month significantly decreased the percentage change of the HDL-C ratio value in rats fed with high cholesterol diet. Conclusion: The present results suggested that Coenzyme Q10 possesses hypolipidemic effects in rats supplemented with high cholesterol diet. Thus, use of Coenzyme Q10 may be useful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in which atherosclerosis plays a major role.
  Atef M. Al-Attar and Talal A. Zari
  The present study was conducted to compare the efficiency of ginger, clove and ginger plus clove oils supplementation in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. In comparison with control, highly significant increases in the values of blood glucose (273.72%), triglycerides (34.97%), cholesterol (65.79%), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (201.07%), total protein (21.09 ), creatinine (74.31%), urea (82.08%), uric acid (81.23%), alanine aminotransferase (74.36%) and aspartate aminotransferase (34.99%) were observed in STZ-diabetic rats, while the value of high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol was markedly declined (21.68%). Administration of ginger oil to diabetic rats resulted in mild increases of the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total protein, urea, uric acid and aspartate aminotransferase, while the value of HDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased. Moreover, the treatment with ginger oil noticeably restored the values of blood creatinine and alanine aminotransferase activity to the control levels. Supplementation of tested oils significantly decreased the haematobiochemical changes in STZ-diabetic rats. In comparison with control, administration of ginger oil or ginger plus clove oils significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose in non-diabetic rats. Reducing effect of ginger oil on the level of blood triglycerides was notably observed in non-diabetic rats. From the present new findings, it was suggested that ginger, clove and ginger plus clove oils supplementation may act as antioxidant agents and these oils could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of diabetic mellitus and its complications.
  Atef M. Al-Attar
  The present study examined the preventive influences of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological alterations in the frog, Rana ridibunda. The experimental animals were divided into five batches. The first batch was untreated and served as control. The other batches were treated for 6 weeks with carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon extract plus carbon tetrachloride, cinnamon and corn oil, respectively. Haematological, biochemical and hepatosomatic index indices were chosen as physiological indicators. These parameters were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. In comparison with control and cinnamon plus CCl4 batches, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and increases of glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase values were noted in CCl4-exposed batch at all experimental periods. Also, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index levels were significantly elevated, while mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were decreased at second and last periods. Mean cell volume values were only increased at the first period. In comparison with control batch, significant decreases of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and increases of glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and hepatosomatic index values were observed in frogs treated with cinnamon plus CCl4 at 2 and 6 weeks. Mean cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were statistically elevated at second period. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration values were declined at last period. Moreover, the percentage changes of these parameters in cinnamon plus CCl4 batch tended to be lower than CCl4 treated the experimental animals. In addition, it is conceivable therefore, that the cinnamon aqueous extract exhibits a protective influence against carbon tetrachloride-induced some physiological changes, probably mediated through different pathways.
  Atef M. Al-Attar
  The present study was focused for investigation the effects of sublethal concentration of nickel exposure after three weeks on some physiological and gill structure alterations in the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Physiological parameters such as serum sodium, chloride, osmolality, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were chosen to evaluate the response of experimental animal to nickel intoxication. In comparison with control, serum sodium, chloride and osmolality values were decreased in nickel-exposed fish, while the levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly elevated. Nickel exposure induced some histological changes in fish gill structure. These changes included hyperplasia, hypertrophy, shortening of secondary lamellae and fusion of adjacent lamellae. The physiological and histological changes indicate that nickel is very hazardous pollutant. Moreover, the above mentioned severe alterations indicate that the fish, Oreochromis niloticus is appropriate species to act as a biological indicator of water pollution level.
  Talal A. Zari and Atef M. Al-Attar
  The effects of ginger and clove oils on some physiological parameters were examined in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats given the control diet had the lowest body weight change, body temperature, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels after 2 weeks. Diabetic rats given diets containing the oils of ginger, clove, or mixture of them had higher body weight change, body temperature, TSH, T3 and T4 levels than diabetic rats given the control diet. No significant differences were observed in the above physiological parameters of normal rats fed on the examined oils when compared with those rats fed on the control diet after 2 weeks. There were no significant differences in body temperatures of diabetic rats fed on the diets containing the different oils when compared with normal rats fed on the same diets after 2 weeks. These data indicate that the diets containing the oils of ginger, clove, or mixture of them improve the examined physiological parameters in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
  Atef M. Al-Attar
  Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide health problem and one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver that involves the formation of fibrous (scar) tissue associated with the destruction of the normal architecture of the organ. Hence, the investigation for an efficient hepatoprotective drug is an urgent need. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate whether vitamin C could prevent liver cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in Wistar male rats. The chronic administration of TAA for a period of 10 weeks increased the levels of serum total bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), while the levels of glucose, total protein, albumin and the values of red blood corpuscles (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) and white blood corpuscles (WBC) count were statistically decreased. Moreover, the administration of TAA induced hepatic nodular transformations and the parenchyma nodules surrounded by fibrous septae. TAA administration induced centrilobular necrosis, hepatic cells surrounding central vein showed various degenerative changes like cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration and necrosis with loss of nucleus. The administration of vitamin C after TAA intoxication led to decrease the severe biochemical, hematological and histopathological changes. But more overt protections were observed in rats supplemented with vitamin C before TAA exposure. The present findings suggest that pretreatment with vitamin C could be more useful for the prevention of hepatic cirrhosis induced by TAA in rats.
  Atef M. Al-Attar
  The present study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Avicennia alba leaves extract on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in Wistar female rats. The experimental animals were divided into five groups. The first group was received saline solution and served as control. The second group was intragastrically received ethanol. The third and fourth groups were pretreated with low dose (100 mg kg-1, BW) and high dose (300 mg kg-1 BW) of A. alba leaves extract and after 1 h they were administrated with ethanol. The fifth and sixth groups were intragastrically received low and high doses of A. alba leaves extract. Ethanol treatment increased the levels of serum creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase in the second group, while the levels of urea and uric acid were statistically unchanged compared with control group. Histopatholgically, ethanol administration caused severe gastric mucosal damage in rats of the second group. Administration of low dose of A. alba leaves extract significantly decreased the physiological and histopathological alterations induced by ethanol. The pretreatment with high dose of A. alba leaves extract significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced physiological and histopathological changes in rats, confirming its nephroprotective, hepatoprotective and gastroprotective influence. The results suggest that A. alba leaves extract possesses significant nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and antiulcerogenic properties which could be due to antioxidant action of chemical constituents of A. alba leaves extract.
 
 
 
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