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Articles by Arvind Kumar
Total Records ( 6 ) for Arvind Kumar
  Arvind Kumar , Anu Rahal , Ram Ragvendra , Atul Prakash , Rajesh Mandil and S.K. Garg
  Levofloxacin is a third generation fluoroquinolone with excellent tissue penetration and efficacy against respiratory and urogenital bacterial infections. In the present study, disposition kinetics of levofloxacin was studied in cattle calves following an intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose rate of 10 mg kg-1. Blood was collected at predetermined time intervals and plasma was separated. Plasma concentrations of levofloxacin were determined using the HPLC assay method (R2 = 0.999). Plasma concentration versus time data was subjected to compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear iterative computer software “PHARMKIT”. Following intravenous and intramuscular administration of levofloxacin in cattle calves (10 mg kg-1), the plasma concentration versus time data of levofloxacin was best described by two-compartment open model and one-compartment open model with first order absorption rate constant with modest bioavailability values, respectively. The mean values for t½α and t½β were 0.05±0.01 h and 2.12±0.21 h, respectively for i.v. route. The values of AUC, Vdarea and ClB were found to be 29.32±1.19 μg mL-1 h, 1.05±0.10 L kg-1 and 0.34±0.01 L h-1 kg-1, respectively while the ratio of drug concentrations between the tissues and plasma (T/P) was 4.47±02.09. For i.m. route, the mean (±SE) values of t1/2Ka, t½β, AUC, MAT, MRT and F were found to be 0.51±0.09 h, 2.76±0.36 h, 18.43±2.15 μg mL-1 h, 1.85±0.46 h, 4.72±0.72 h and 62.65±5.99%, respectively. Based on the pharmacodynamic indices, the optimal dose of levofloxacin in cattle calves may be proposed as 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. repeated at 24 h interval preferably by intravenous route for treating common microbial infections of veterinary importance.
  Hardeep Singh Gujral , Paras Sharma , Arvind Kumar and Baljeet Singh
  Three paddy cultivars varying in l/b ratio (2.67−4.59) were dehusked to obtain brown rice. The brown rice was germinated for 24 and 48 h, dried, and milled into grit. The grit from controlled (un-germinated) and germinated brown rice was extruded at 100 and 120°C and the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extrudates was determined. The total phenolic content of the control and germinated brown rice varied from 0.803−0.992 mg/g ferulic acid equivalent and germination increased total phenolic content by 8.8−12.0%. The antioxidant activity varied from 6.96−15.86% (decrease in absorbance of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and germination increased the antioxidant activity by 18.2−37.2%. Upon extrusion at 100°C, the total phenolic content decreased by over 50%. A further decrease of 6−15% in total phenolic content was observed when the extrusion temperature was increased from 100 to 120°C. Similar decrease in the antioxidant activity was observed upon extrusion and rise in extrusion temperature. Significant increase in water solubility, water absorption capacity, and percent expansion of extrudates was observed upon extrusion. The extrudates from germinated brown rice were used to make an instant pudding, which upon evaluation scored higher as compared to the pudding from control brown rice.
  Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal , Arvind Kumar , Gaurav Singh , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The intrinsic property of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPP) is to deliver various molecules including nucleic acids, large plasmids, therapeutic drugs, imaging molecules, liposomes, nano-molecules to various cell and tissues, which indicates about the potential of CPP as therapeutic vehicle molecules. These are easy to prepare, well characterized, versatile and have ability to link with bioactive cargo through covalent and non-covalent bonds. The interaction between cargo and CPP is highly dependent on physiochemical properties of CPP including size, pH and presence of basic residues in the carrier peptide. Primary mechanism of transport of CPP is endocytosis; however, evidences of endocytosis independent mechanisms including carpet model, inverted micelle model, barrel stave pore model and toroidal pore model are also present. Though, the natural CPP are often non- selective and passive, these may be tuned to become specific and targeted by conjugating them with functional groups and chemicals. In fact several natural CPPs such as penetratin, Tat, polyarginies etc have been modified to achieve maximum penetration and desired characters. Linear CPPs may be brought into multi-branched topology to give dendrimeric structures having more cell penetrating capacity, lower toxicity and hemolysis and higher serum stability. Site-specific targeting of CPP might be helpful in achieving several goals including enhancement in protein expression, gene silencing, formation of pleuripotent cells, reduction in inflammation and apoptosis, trans-epithelial transport, neuroprotection, ischemia treatment, treating insulin disorders, delivery of nucleic acids and agricultural pest control. The present review encompasses the detailed information regarding different modes of entry of CPP inside the cells, designing and classes of such peptides, along with theirs versatile therapeutic applications.
  Rekha Khandia , Abhinav Dwivedi , Akanksha Sahu , Pratibha Vishwakarma , Arvind Kumar , Kuldeep Dhama and Ashok Munjal
  Background and Objective: Angiogenesis (neovascularization) is an important process of forming new blood vessels, essential for embryonic development, reproduction, wound repair and growth. Present study reports the plausible angiogenic modulatory effects of the cadmium chloride (CdCl2). Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic substance, which have many inhibitory effects but also medicinally important. There are several toxic materials which in low quantity can be used in therapeutic aspects. Keeping in view, the effects of CdCl2 salt were investigated on the process of angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model by assessing gross and histopathological alterations. Materials and Methods: The two groups of the embryonated chicken eggs (10 in each group, 1 control and 1 treated group) were taken and 200 μL of 0.5 M of CdCl2 was directly introduced on to the CAM. The resealed eggs were incubated for 72 h in a humid incubator chamber at 37±1°C. Then the eggs were opened to observe the gross and histopathological alterations for angiogenesis modulation. Results: Gross examination of CAM revealed the reduction in the number of secondary and tertiary blood vessels amongst CdCl2 treated group. Histopathological analysis revealed anti-angiogenic effects of CdCl2 due to the less number of blood vessels and presence of breached mesodermal blood vessels, out of which RBCs were oozing out. Occasional abnormal thickening and accumulation of densely arranged cells at chorionic and allantoic sides was also observed. Conclusion: The anti-angiogenic properties of CdCl2 can be explored in the therapeutics of cancer and tumor related disorders. However, to avoid any kind of side effects, further qualitative, quantitative analysis and critical dose determination is required before going for clinical trials. Present investigations revealed the anti-angiogenic effect of cadmium chloride salt on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.
  Ram A. Lal , Mithun Chakrabarty , Sanjesh Choudhury , Aziz Ahmed , Roshmita BORTHAKUR and Arvind Kumar
  The reaction of bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)succinoyldihydrazone with bis(acetylacetonato)dioxomolybdenum(VI) (MoO2(acac)2) in 1 : 3 molar ratio in EtOH : water mixture (95 : 5) affords a complex of composition [(MoO2)2(nsh)(H2O)2] · C2H5OH. The reaction of [(MoO2)2(nsh)(H2O)2] · C2H5OH with Lewis bases, namely pyridine, 2-picoline, 3-picoline, and 4-picoline, yields [(MoO2)2(nsh)(B)2] · C2H5OH (where B = pyridine, 2-picoline, 3-picoline, and 4-picoline). Further, when this complex was reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipyridine in 1 : 3 molar ratio in anhydrous ethanol the binuclear complexes [(μ2-O)2(MoO2)2(H4nsh)(phen)] · C2H5OH and [(μ2-O)2(MoO2)2(H4nsh)(bpy)] · C2H5OH were obtained. All of the complexes have been characterized by analytical, magnetic moment, and molar conductivity data. The structures of the complexes have been discussed in the light of electronic, IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
  Sandip Mandal , Amit Nath , Rajesh Kumar Singh , Arvind Kumar and Nishant Deshmukh
  The physico-mechanical properties of Prunus nepalensis fruit and seed were determined at moisture content of 88.50 and 15.62%, respectively. An image processing technique was also used to measure major dimensions and data was compared and correlated with experimental data. Strong correlation was observed between experimental and image processing technique in length and width of both fruit and seed. The true density, bulk density and porosity of fruit were measured as 1077.41, 598.08 kg/m3 and 43.42%, respectively whereas for seed these values were 1178.84, 508.80 kg/m3 and 57.94%. The angle of repose of fruit and seed was found to be 26.43 and 22.13°, respectively. The friction coefficient of fruit ranged from 0.421-0.477 whereas that of seed 0.369-0.435. Hardness of fruit was determined as 0.966 kg.
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