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Articles by Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
Total Records ( 12 ) for Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  Aslam Khan , Najeeb-ur- Rehman , Areej Mohammad Al-Taweel , Shagufta Perveen , Ghada Ahmed Fawzy and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  This study describes the prokinetic, laxative and antidiarrheal activities of the aqueous-ethanol extract of Celtis africana (Ca.Cr) in mice, together with gut stimulatory and inhibitory activities using isolated gut preparations in an attempt to explore possible mechanisms of action. Ca.Cr, showed atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative activities in mice at low doses (30 and 100 mg kg-1), followed by antidiarrheal effect at next higher doses (300 and 1000 mg kg-1). In spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum, Ca.Cr, showed a dose-dependent (0.03-3 mg mL-1) spasmogenic effect followed by spasmolytic effect at higher concentrations (5-10 mg mL-1). Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the atropine-sensitive spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction, while the spasmolytic component was separated in the organic fraction. When studied against the high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions, both Ca.Cr and Ca.Cl caused dose-dependent (0.01-5.0 mg mL-1) inhibition, later being more potent, while both shifted the Ca++ concentration response curves to the right, similar to verapamil. These data showed that the crude extract of C. africana possesses prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic activities mediated through muscarinic receptor activation concentrated in the aqueous fraction while, antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities via Ca++ antagonist activity, separated in the chloroform fraction.
  Najeeb-ur- Rehman , Aslam Khan , Urooj Fatima , Mahrukh Akram , Nawal Al-Musayeib , Shaza Al-Massarani , Ali El-Gamal and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  Periploca aphylla (Family: Asclepiadaceae), is native to Saudi Arabia and is used as purgative. The aim of this study was to investigate the gut modulatory effect of the aqueous (Pa.Aq) and n-hexane (Pa.Hex) fractions of P. aphylla and to investigate their mechanism of actions. The aqueous (Pa.Aq) and n-hexane fractions (Pa.Hex) of the P. aphylla were studied using the in-vivo and in-vitro experiments. The laxative and antidiarrheal activities were conducted in mice while isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum preparations were used to investigate their mode of action. In the in-vivo experiments, Pa.Aq showed atropine-sensitive laxative effect in mice at the doses of 30 and 100 mg kg-1, while Pa.Hex showed opposite effect providing 40 and 80% protection from diarrhea at the same doses. In the in-vitro experiments, Pa.Aq showed atropine-sensitive spasmogenic effect in isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum, while Pa.Hex showed spasmolytic effect by inhibiting the spontaneous and high K+-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, similar to verapamil; a standard calcium channel blocker (CCB). The CCB activity was confirmed when Pa.Hex dose-dependently (0.03-0.1 mg mL-1) shifted the Ca++ concentration-response curves to the right with suppression of the maximum response, similar to verapamil. These data indicate that the laxative effect mediated through cholinergic pathways is attributed to the presence of water soluble (polar) constituent(s), while the antidiarrheal effect exhibited by non-polar constituent(s) through Ca++ antagonist effect is perhaps meant by nature to offset the excessive gut stimulation effect which could have been otherwise harmful.
  Farooq Anwar , Nusrat Shaheen , Ghulam Shabir , Muhammad Ashraf , Khalid M. Alkharfy and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  The current study reports variation in antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents in the flowers and leaves of a medicinal herb Ghaneri (Lantana camara L.) as affected by different extraction solvents (80% methanol, 80% ethanol, absolute methanol and absolute ethanol). The antioxidant activity was assessed by measuring the reducing power, inhibition in linoleic acid peroxidation and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH●) scavenging activity. Of the extracts tested, flower extract produced by 80% methanol possessed maximum amount of total phenolics (21.4 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoids (13.8 g CE/100 g DW), reducing power (0.095 for extract concentration of 1.0 mg mL-1), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (83.3%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (72.3%). A significant difference was observed for phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in relation to different extraction solvents and plant parts analyzed (p<0.05) thus prompting the need for utilization of appropriate solvent media and material for isolation of maximum amount of antioxidants. The results of this study explore the potential of L. camara as a rich source of natural antioxidants for development of functional foods and nutraceutical applications.
  Saf-ur-Rehman Mandukhail , Atallah F. Ahmed , Hanan M. Al-Yousef , Jawaher Hamad Al-Qahtani and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  The flavonoid-rich hydro-acetone extract of red onion (Allium cepa peel, ACPE) was studied for its spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities using ex-vitro and in-vivo assays. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, ACPE produced a concentration-dependent (0.03-1 mg L-1) relaxation of spontaneous and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions equipotently, nearly similar to that caused by papaverine, whereas, verapamil was relatively more potent against K+-induced contractions. ACPE also caused the right ward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs), similar to that of verapamil and papaverine. In normotensive anesthetized rats, ACPE dose-dependently (3-30 mg kg-1) suppressed the carbachol (CCh, 1 mg kg-1) induced bronchoconstriction similar to the effect observed with aminophylline. In guinea-pig tracheal preparation, ACPEexhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of both CCh (1 μM) and high K+-induced contraction at similar concentrations (0.3-3 mg mL-1) and also shifted the isoprenaline-induced inhibitory CRCs to the left, similar to that caused by papaverine. Theresults of this study indicated that the spasmolytic and bronchodilatory activities of ACPE are mediated through the dual inhibition of Ca++ channels and phosphodiesterase enzyme like-mechanisms, which might add an evidence-based medicinal value to the red onion peel in the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, e.g. diarrhea and asthma, respectively.
  Munasib Khan , Arif-ullah Khan , Najeeb-ur-Rehman and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  Morus alba has been used in traditional medicine system for the treatment of hypertension. Our objective was to provide scientific basis for the medicinal use of M. alba in hypertension. The crude extract of Morus alba (Ma.Cr) induced a dose-dependent (10-100 mg kg-1) fall in the arterial BP in anaesthetized rats. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Ma.Cr caused inhibition of atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions, similar to that exhibited by verapamil. When tested in rat aortic ring preparations, Ma.Cr at concentration range of 0.1-10 mg mL-1 relaxed high K+ (80 mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM)-induced contractions and shifted the Ca++ dose-response curves to right, like caused by verapamil. These data indicate that the blood pressure lowering action of Morus alba occurred via., Ca++ channel blockade pathway, which provides evidence for the pharmacological basis to justify its effectiveness in hypertension.
  Asma Saeed , Bushra Sultana , Farooq Anwar , Muhammad Mushtaq , Khalid M. Alkharfy and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  The present study reports the antioxidant and antimutaganic potential of the aqueous (30 and 70%) and acidified (0.5 and 1 N) methanolic extracts from seeds and pods of green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). The Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC) of extracts were determined by Follin-Ciocalteu reagent. Antioxidant activity of the extracts produced was evaluated by the measurements of 2, 2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation method, whereas mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were assessed using Ames bacterial test. The TPC, scavenging of DPPH° and inhibition of linoleic acid were found to be 27.75-126.35 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1 DW, 46-91% at 5 mg L-1 of extract concentration and 34-83%, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts of seeds and pods of green cardamom showed strong antimutagenic potential against mutant strains S. typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA100 while none of the extract showed mutagenicity. The results of this study support that the extracts from cardamom seeds and pods can be explored as potential chemotherapeutic agents against cancer as well as for the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.
  Abdul Jabbar Shah , Anwarul-Hassan Gilani , Hashim Muhammad Hanif , Saeed Ahmad , Sana Khalid and Ishfaq A. Bukhari
  This study was aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying the blood pressure lowering effect of the crude extract of Azadirachta indica (Ai.Cr) and its aqueous (Ai.Aq) and ethylacetate (Ai.EtAc) fractions. In normotensive anesthetized rats, Ai.Cr (1-30 mg kg-1) caused a dose-dependent fall in arterial pressure, Ai.Aq being more effective. In isolated rabbit aorta ring preparations, Ai.Cr inhibited phenylephrine (1 μM) and high K+ (80 mM) pre-contractions, with slightly higher potency against phenylephrine while Ai.EtAc was more potent against K+, similar to verapamil. The aqueous fraction was equipotent against both pre-contractions. Pre-treatment of aortic rings with Ai.Cr and both of its fractions shifted the Ca++ concentration-response curves to the right, similar to verapamil. In isolated rat aorta preparations, Ai.Cr and Ai.Aq exhibited endothelium-dependent L-NAME and atropine-sensitive and Ai.EtAc endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, similar to verapamil. Against high K+-pre-contractions, crude extract and Ai.EtAc were comparable in potency while, Ai.Aq was less potent. In isolated guinea-pig atrial preparations, crude extract and Ai.Aq were equipotent against both force and rate of contractions while Ai.EtAc was more potent against the rate. These data show that the crude extract of A. indica possesses vasodilator effect, mediated through Ca++ channel blockade and NO-dependent atropine-sensitive pathways along with cardiac depressant activity which possibly explain its blood pressure lowering effect.
  Munasib Khan and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  This study was aimed at providing scientific basis for the medicinal use of Vitex negundo in hypertension. The in-vivo study was conducted on normotensive anesthetized rats while in-vitro studies were conducted on isolated guinea-pig atria and rat aorta preparations by using isometeric transducers coupled with Powerlab Data-aquisiton system. The crude extract of Vitex negundo (Vn.Cr), produced a dose-dependent (10–100 mg/kg-1) fall in the arterial pressure of anaesthetized rats. When tested in rat aortic ring preparations, Vn.Cr inhibited the low K+ (25 mM) with greater potency as compared to high K+ (80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM)-induced contractions. Further studies on the inhibitory effect of Vn.Cr against low K+ revealed that the preteatment of tissues with tetraethyl ammonium (TEA; 1 mM) shifted the concentration response curves to the right while glibenclamide (Gb; 10 μM) did not show any effect, hence showing the involvement of non-specific type of K+ channels activation in the vasodilatory effect of Vn.Cr. The plant extract also shifted the Ca++ concentration response curves to the right dose-dependently (0.3-1 mg/mL-1), like that caused by verapamil. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Vn.Cr (0.1-10 mg/mL-1) caused inhibition of atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions, similar to that exhibited by verapamil. These data indicate that Vitex negundo exhibits BP lowering, vasodilator and cardiac suppressant activities, mediated predominently through K+ channel activation combined with Ca++ channel inhibition.
  Saima Nasir , Jamila Ahmed , Mudassir Asrar and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  This study evaluates research carried out in Pakistan during 1975-2014 in the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology using different bibliometric indicators. The data have been retrieved from online database of the ISI Web of Science. The global share of Pakistan in the publications in the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology is only 0.25%. The volume and quality of research in pharmacology and pharmacy revealed a positive trend in Pakistan from 2005 onwards, as measured by the number of articles published in ISI-indexed journals. The average annual growth rate is 29.29% for publications and 34.22% for citations. If compared with Asian countries, 27 countries including Pakistan are ranked in top 100 publishing countries in the field of pharmacology/pharmacy by Web of Science. Out of those 27 countries, Pakistan holds 13th rank and still needs concrete measures to increase research productivity and visibility of researchers in the field of pharmacology/pharmacy.
  Ambreen Aleem , Khalid Hussain Janbaz , Malik Hassan Mehmood , Samra Bashir , Fayez Jawed , Najeeb-ur-Rehman and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  This study was aimed to rationalize medicinal use of M. nagi in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders. The crude extract of M. nagi bark (Mn.Cr), its aqueous (Mn.Aq) and ethyl acetate (Mn.EtAc) fractions were prepared. Antidiarrheal activity of M. nagi was carried out in mice, while its gut modulatory, bronchodilatory and vasodilatory activities were evaluated in isolated tissues of different animals using tissue bath assembly coupled with PowerLab. Orally administered doses (100-500 mg kg–1) of Mn.Cr produced protection against castor oil and MgSO4-stimulated diarrhea in mice. In guinea-pig ileum, Mn.Cr and Mn.Aq exhibited atropine-sensitive contractile effect. In rabbit jejunum, Mn.Cr and Mn.Aq exerted atropine-sensitive stimulant effects at 0.01-1 mg mL–1 followed by relaxation, while Mn.EtAc (0.03-0.1 mg mL–1) exhibited only inhibitory effect. Mn.Cr and Mn.EtAc inhibited high K+ (80 mM) induced contractions and shifted Ca++ Concentration Response Curves (CRCs) rightwards in rabbit jejunum. The Mn.Cr inhibited high K+, carbachol (CCh) and phenylephrine (P.E) induced contractions and shifted CRCs of Ca++ rightwards in rabbit trachea and endothelial-intact or denuded aortic tissues of rats. These results indicate the presence of combination of cholinergic and Ca++ antagonist constituents in M. nagi, which may provide scientific basis to its medicinal use in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders.
  Farooq Anwar , Gulzar Muhammad , Muhammad Ajaz Hussain , Gokhan Zengin , Khalid M. Alkharfy , Muhammad Ashraf and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
  Caper (Capparis spinosa L.), a drought tolerant plant belonging to genus Capparis of the family Capparidaceae is mainly distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of the tropical and subtropical world. The plant, as a potential source of valuable nutrients such as vitamins (especially vitamin C), digestible protein, reducing sugars and essential minerals is valued for human food. The fruit of this plant, being a rich source of high-value components, is usually pickled and added to salads, sauces and jams. The plant has been used traditionally to prevent and/or treat a number of health disorders such as diabetes, hepatitis, obesity and kidney problems. Besides uses as an ingredient for food and feed, the contents of bioactive phytochemicals such as terpenoids, alkaloids, glucosinolates, tocopherols, polyprenols, isothiocyanates, carotenoids and phenolics, have allowed to envisage potential applications of C. spinosa as a health promoter plant. A broad range of pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antipyretic, diuretic and hypoglycemic have been ascribed to different parts of C . spinosa. This comprehensive review describes the detailed profile of high-value nutrients and bioactives along with pharmacological and phyto-medicinal attributes of this multipurpose food plant with the aim to exploring its potential uses as ingredients for functional foods and nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry.
  Aslam Khan , Najeeb-ur-Rehman , Anwarul-Hassan Gilani , Zunirah Ahmed , Shaza Al-Massarani , Ali. El-Gamal and Mohamed Farag
  Background and Objectives: Albizia lebbeck is famous plant for its medicinal use in hyperactive gut and airways disorders. The objective of this study was therefore to provide a scientific rationale for the medicinal utility of Albezia lebbeck in diarrhea, gut spasm and bronchospasm, with the possible mode of action explored. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic extract of the pericarp of Albezia lebbeck (Al.Pericarp) was tested using in-vivo and in-vitro assays. Results: Albezia Pericarp, at 100 and 300 mg kg1 showed 40 and 80% protection of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, whereas loperamide (10 mg kg1) showed complete protection. In isolated rabbit jejunum, Albezia. Pericarp completely inhibited spontaneous, carbachol (CCh; 1 μM) and low K+ (25 mM)-induced contractions but had only a weak effect against high K+ (80 mM). When tested for bronchodilatory activity in anesthetized rats, Albezia. Pericarp (3-30 mg kg1) inhibited the CCh-induced bronchospasm in a dose-dependent manner, similar to aminophylline. In isolated guinea-pig tracheal preparations, Al.Pericarp selectively inhibited contractions induced by CCh and low K+. The inhibitory effect of Al.Pericarp against low K+ was reversed in the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a non-specific blocker of K+-channels, whereas no significant inhibition was observed in the presence of glibenclamide (Gb) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which are ATP-dependent and voltage-dependent K+ channel blockers, respectively. The plant extract (0.03 and 0.01 mg mL1) also potentiated isoprenaline-inhibitory concentration-response curves (CRCs) by a shift to the left, in both jejunum and trachea, showing phosphodiesterase inhibition, similar to papaverine. Conclusion: These results indicated that the crude extract of Albizia lebbeck Pericarp possesses anti diarrheal, antispasmodic and bronchodilatory activities, mediated possibly through dual pathways, namely activation of a non-specific type of K+-channels and inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzyme. Thus, this study offered a sound basis for Albizia lebbeck to be developed for hyperactive gut and airways disorders.
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