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Articles by Anwar-ul-Hassan
Total Records ( 5 ) for Anwar-ul-Hassan
  Muhammad Abid , Anwar-ul-Hassan , Abdul Ghafoor and M.M. Iqbal
  Deterioration of soil health and reduction in plant growth are characteristics of long-term irrigation with brackish waters. In the present investigations, we evaluated the effects of such waters on the declining rate of wheat and paddy yields and properties of the Bhalike soil series for four and a half years. Five levels, each of EC, SAR and RSC at 0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 7.35 dS m-1; 3.95, 9.65, 18.0, 26.35 and 32.04 (mmol L-1)1/2 and 0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 7.35 mmolc L-1, respectively, were applied to 30 x 68 cm undisturbed and disturbed soil columns taken in metallic cylinders (30 x 76 cm). Results indicate that brackish water with an ECiw of ≤ 4.0 and 4.0 dS m-1; SARiw ≤ 9.65 and 18.0; RSC ≤ 4.0 and 4.0 mmolc L-1 may be used for irrigation of wheat without yield reduction up to coded “-1.682, -1 and 0” levels of SARiw and RSC; ECiw and RSC; ECiw and SARiw, respectively, for the undisturbed and disturbed soil columns. Paddy yield decreased linearly with ECiw at given levels of SARiw and RSC. The SARiw up to 26.35 at coded “-1.682 and –1” levels of ECiw and RSC did not affect the paddy yield in both the undisturbed and disturbed soils. At higher coded “0, 1 and 1.682” levels of ECiw and RSC, the SARiw became narrow, i.e. 9.65 for paddy yield. The RSC up to 2.0 and 4.0 mmolc L-1 were observed safe for paddy yield in the undisturbed and disturbed soils, respectively. The rate of yield reduction with similar ECiw, SARiw and/or RSC was high in the undisturbed than that in the disturbed soils. Higher grain and paddy yields were predicted in the disturbed than that in the undisturbed soil columns with the same levels of ECiw, SARiw and RSC. The soil EC and SAR tended to increase with ECiw, SARiw and/or RSC, with exception to ECe which decreased with RSC waters. However, the rate of increase in ECe and SAR was high with ECiw and SARiw particularly at higher levels of SARiw and RSC; ECiw and RSC. It was observed that whole of the undisturbed and disturbed soil profile attained ECe >4.0 dS m-1 and SAR values >13.3 which are the upper limits for saline-sodic soils. The bulk density (BD) decreased by 4.9 and 4.4 %, respectively, for the undisturbed and disturbed soils with ECiw, 7.35 dS m-1 over ECiw 0.64 dS m-1 at coded “0” levels of SARiw and/or RSC of waters. The BD was 18.1, 9.3 and 14.3; 9.5 %, respectively, with SARiw 32.04 and RSC 7.35 mmolc L-1 over SARiw 3.95 and RSC 0.64 mmolc L-1for the undisturbed and disturbed soils. The increase in Ks was 0.048, 0.118, 0.172 and 0.190; 0.043, 0.109, 0.170 and 0.197 cm h-1, respectively, with ECiw 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 7.35 dS m-1 over ECiw 0.64 for the undisturbed and disturbed soils. At given levels of ECiw and RSC; ECiw and SARiw, the SARiw and RSC reduced the Ks of the soils. For instance, reduction in Ks was 0.003, 0.036 and 0.069 cm h-1; 0.01, 0.042 and 0.071 cm h-1 with SARiw 18.0, 26.35 and 32.04, respectively, over SARiw 3.95 at coded “0” levels of ECiw and SARiw [4.0 dS m-1 and 18.0 (mmol L-1)1/2]. At coded “0” levels of ECiw and SARiw, the RSC waters up to 2.0 mmolc L-1 increased the Ks of both the soils.
  Muhammad Siddique Shakir , Anwar-ul-Hassan and Abdul Razzaq
  Soil columns of three different soil series were collected from the field and were applied with varying levels of salt solutions until steady states were achieved. Then samples were taken from those soil columns and their bulk density, particular density and porosity were determined. It was found that bulk density increases with increase in TSS and ESP but ESP effect is more. Particle density and porosity both decrease with increase in TSS and ESP and decrease is more due to ESP. However, in sandy loam soil TSS has no effect on any of the parameter studied.
  Abdul Ghani , Dr. Mumtaz Hussain and Anwar-ul-Hassan
  The interactive effect of nitrogen and water stress on leaf area of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied in Pots. Nitrogen and sporadic stress was induced by a cycle of ten-days watering and ten-days stress period after 20, 30, 40 and 50 days of sowing. Data revealed that the sporadic stress and nitrogen had highly significant response. When either the stress period was increased or nitrogen level decreased, the leaf area significantly decreased. The highest leaf area values were recorded with full dose of nitrogen, intermediate with 1/3rd dose and the lowest with 1/8th dose of nitrogen at all sporadic stress levels.
  Abdul Ghani , Abid Nisar Ahmad , Anwar-ul-Hassan , M. Iqbal , G. Yasin and Naeem Iqbal
  Interactive effect of water stress and nitrogen on plant height and root length of wheat varieties inqulab-91 and Parwaz-94 were investigated. Urea as nitrogen fertilizer was applied before imposition of water stress in plots and water stress was imposed 25, 35 and 45 days after germination. The data reveal that sporadic stress and urea fertilizer have highly significant response. The effects of water stress were mostly reduced to greater extent at high nitrogen level (98 gm / plot) Nitrogen applied at higher rates had effectively balanced the adverse effects of water stress.
  Muhammad Imran , Anwar-Ul-Hassan , Muhammad Iqbal and Ehsan Ullah
  Water is the most important factor for plant growth while potassium fertilization plays an important role under deficit irrigation or under stress condition. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the yield and water use efficiency with amelioration effect of potassium in wheat crop exposed to regulated deficit irrigation. Wheat crop was sown for two years. Pot experiment was laid out following CRD with two factorial arrangements. Each treatment was replicated thrice. Wheat variety “Sahar-2006” was sown. All the measures were taken to control weeds, other pests and diseases for the crop management. Soil water content was measured by weighing pot after 1 to 2 day’s interval throughout the growing season. Potential evapotranspiration was calculated using Penman-Montieth model. The ETa was calculated using water balance equation and crop coefficient was calculated from the lysimeter/pot trials. The data obtained was analyzed statistically. The result of this study showed that the maximum grain yield was observed with T1 (HHHHH) at K2 and second best was the T2 (MMMMM: 70-80% FC at all stages) at K2 because it showed minimum reduction in yield and save upto 20-30% water. It also showed the highest water use efficiency (WUE). It was also observed that the soil evaporation decreased with regulated deficit irrigation to some extent but it mostly depend upon on the hydraulic properties of soil. The treatment combination T3 (LLLLL: 60-70% FC at all growth satges) at K2 showed the highest root mass density and root length density during 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and potassium application have significant effect on crop coefficient (Kc) during 2010-11 and 2011-12 in Winter seasons.
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