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Articles by Anuraga Jayanegara
Total Records ( 8 ) for Anuraga Jayanegara
  Caribu Hadi Prayitno , Suwarno , Agus Susanto and Anuraga Jayanegara
  Background and Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of garlic (Allium sativum) extract and organic minerals (1.5 ppm organic Cr, 0.3 ppm organic Se and 40 ppm Zn-lysinat) on milk yield, milk quality and feed digestibility of lactating dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Fifteen multiparous, one month pre-partum Friesian Holstein cows with an average body weigth of 638±72 kg were used as the experimental units and therefore, there were 5 replicates for each treatment. The cows were fed with a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) consisted of Napier grass: Concentrate mixture (60:40 w/w, dry matter basis) as the basal diet. The experiment was conducted with three treatments, namely control feed (CTL), control feed+Organic Minerals (OM) and OM+garlic extract (OM-G). Variables measured were nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and milk composition. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with a completely randomized design. Results: Supplementation of garlic extract significantly influenced the digestibility of Crude Fiber (CF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF ), milk yield and milk efficiency (p<0.05). However, the supplementation had no effect on nutrient intake (dry matter, organic matter and total digestible nutrient) and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and solid non-fat). Supplementation of garlic extract and organic mineral resulted in better feed digestibility, milk production and milk efficiency than those of the control diet and control diet supplemented with organic mineral (p<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation of combined garlic extract and organic mineral (Se, Cr and Zn) in dairy cows increases feed digestibility, milk production and milk efficiency.
  Suharlina , Dewi Apri Astuti , Nahrowi , Anuraga Jayanegara and Luki Abdullah
  This study aimed to evaluate nutritional quality of total mixed rations containing Indigofera zollingeriana for dairy goats by using in vitro rumen fermentation technique (RUSITEC). Four rations with different levels of I. zollingeriana were tested, i.e., 20% of dry matter (R1), 40% (R2), 60% (R3) and 80% (R4). Each ration was repeated three times by following a randomized complete block design in which different batch of rumen fluid served as the block. Variables observed included chemical composition, In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (IVDMD) and In Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility (IVOMD), methane emission, Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) profiles and protozoa population. Results revealed that R4 contained significantly higher crude protein content than that of R1-R3 (p<0.05). Rations containing higher proportions of I. zollingeriana (60 and 80% dry matter) had significantly higher IVDMD and IVOMD as compared to their lower proportions (20 and 40% dry matter, p<0.05). Methane concentration was lowest in ration containing the highest proportion of I. zollingeriana and it was accompanied with the lowest protozoa population. It can be concluded that higher inclusion levels of I. zollingeriana in rations improved their nutritional values while decreasing methane emission as a main greenhouse gas.
  Caribu Hadi Prayitno , Nurul Mukminah and Anuraga Jayanegara
  Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different feeding methods on feeding behavior, feed intake and digestibility of lactating dairy cows. Methodology: Fifteen first-lactating Friesian-Holstein dairy cows in the third month lactation with an average of 515±61.5 kg b.wt., were used as the experimental animals. The cows were subjected to three different feeding methods namely Component Feeding (CF), cafetaria (cafe) and Total Mixed Ration (TMR) according to a completely randomized design with five replicates. Results: Results demonstrated that treatment affected (p<0.05) single meal time; afternoon feeding frequency and nocturnal rumination frequency, but did not affect rumination time during one day, in the afternoon and evening; single rumination time in 1 day and in the afternoon and afternoon rumination frequency. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy were not affected by treatments. Conclusion: Conclusively, lactating dairy cows fed with cafeteria feeding pattern took longer single meal time and less frequent afternoon feeding, while the component feeding take one time rumination and longer rumination in standing position and the total mixedration had more frequent daily and nocturnal rumination. The strategy of feeding with TMR resulted in a lower chewing time, tended to decrease feed intake but increase feed digestibility.
  Yuli Retnani , Iwan Prihantoro , Anuraga Jayanegara , Idat Galih Permana , M. Royan , Isal Mawardi and Taryati
  Sub-sector of livestock has an important role in the life and development of human resources in Indonesia. An important issue on agribusiness beef cattle is a continuous population decline every year. The application of technology has to be initiated in order to obtain production efficiency and production cost efficiency. One of the factors that affect the productivity of livestock is feed. The major constraints of ruminant feed are low quality of forage, the low level of palatability and digestibility. To solve this problem is making forage waste into wafer feed supplement. The aim of this experiment was to determine the nutrient content on wafer feed supplement and productivity of local calf that were given by wafer feed supplement. This research was conducted at Laboratory of Feed Industry, Bogor Agricultural University and the performance test at Karya Anugrah Rumpin Corporation on March-April 2016. To determine the nutrient content of wafer feed supplements used proximate analysis. The experiment of productivity used 12 heads of male local calves (Sumba Ongol calves) with average body weight around 136±22.46 kg with ages around 12-18 months. The experimental local calves were maintained individually. The experimental design used randomized block design with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were feeding patterns of wafer feed supplement i.e., T1 = 0% by feeding wafer supplement+concentrate+king grass, T2 = 10% by feeding wafer supplement+concentrate+king grass, T3 = King grass+10% by feeding wafer supplement+concentrate, T4 = Concentrate+king grass+10% by feeding wafer supplement. The parameters measured were productivity of local calves, i.e., daily weight gain, final body weight, consumption, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, blood cholestrol, blood glucose, blood protein. It was concluded that feeding pattern wafer feed supplement can increase consumption and not influence condition of local calves. It was concluded that daily weight gain by feeding wafer supplement feed 42-45% higer than conventional feed. High crude protein of wafer feed supplement is good supplement for ruminant in the tropic.
  Anuraga Jayanegara , Mohammad M. Sholikin , Della A.N. Sabila , Sri Suharti and Dewi Apri Astuti
  Background and Objective: Cricket contains high crude protein level but it also contains considerable amount of chitin that may impede nutrient digestion and decrease production performance of animal. This experiment aimed to decrease chitin content of cricket (C) through exoskeleton removal (CER) or by chemical extraction (CCE). Materials and Methods: Nutritional evaluation of cricket was performed in two experiments. In experiment 1, three forms of cricket were prepared, i.e., C, CER and CCE. These were subjected to chemical composition determination and in vitro rumen fermentation incubation as individual substrates. In experiment 2, C and CER were included in concentrate rations at different proportions to substitute soybean meal (SBM), i.e., R1 (concentrate containing 30% SBM), R2 (50% SBM was substituted by C), R3 (100% SBM was replaced by C) and R4 (100% SBM was replaced by CER). The concentrates were then evaluated in vitro for their rumen fermentation and digestibility characteristics. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and Duncan’s test. Results: Cricket was high in crude protein(CP), ether extract (EE) and chitin contents. Removal of exoskeleton decreased CP and chitin contents of cricket. Chemical extraction of cricket increased its CP and completely removed its chitin. Main fatty acids observed in cricket were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid and the composition was unaltered due to exoskeleton removal or chemical extraction. Cricket was relatively highly digestible and exoskeleton removal and chemical extraction did not further improve in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of cricket. The R1 and R2 revealed similar IVDMD and IVOMD, but R3 and R4 resulted in lower values for both parameters than those of R1 and R2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Exoskeleton removal or chemical extraction effectively reduced chitin content of cricket and the insect may be used to substitute SBM up to 50% in concentrate for ruminant.
  Muhammad Alam Firmansyah , Erfiani , Anuraga Jayanegara , Nurheni Wijayanto and Achmad
  Background and Objective: Sengon (Paraserienthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen) is a plant species in forestry plantation while rice (Oryza sativa) is an agricultural crop which potentially used in the agroforestry system. Both species are susceptible to dieback disease. This study aimed to isolate and identify the dieback disease on sengon seedlings to understand the pathogenicity of fungal dieback disease on the seedlings of both sengon and rice and to observe the symptom of dieback disease both macroscopically and microscopically. Materials and Methods: Pathogenicity test was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were control, wounded by carborundum, inoculated with pathogen as well as inoculated with pathogen and wounded by carborundum. Results: Results revealed that the greatest percentage of dieback disease on sengon and rice was occurred on the treatment of inoculation with wound both100%. While, the greatest percentage of dieback disease intensity of sengon and rice was obtained on the treatment of inoculation with wound by 98.2 and 40.6%, respectively. The PCR result identified that the pathogen was Ceratobasidium ramicola that form imperfect state as Rhizoctonia sp. Conclusion: This species of fungal pathogen is the major cause of dieback disease on sengon and rice seedlings due to seedlings death.
  Antonius , Komang G. Wiryawan , Amlius Thalib and Anuraga Jayanegara
  The objective of the present study was to investigate feed digestibility and methane emissions of ration based on oil palm by-products on addition of probiotics, namely Acetoanaerobium noterae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and banana stem in vitro. The substrate, i.e., oil palm by-products consisted of oil palm midrib, oil palm leaf, oil palm kernel cake and oil palm sludge in the ratio of 30, 30, 30 and 10%, respectively. The following treatments were tested: control (R0), R0+S. cerevisiae (R1), R0+A. noterae (R2), R0+S. cerevisiae+A. noterae (R3), R0+ banana stem (R4), R0+banana stem+S. cerevisiae (R5), R0+banana stem+A. noterae (R6) and R0+banana stem+S. cerevisiae+A. noterae (R7). The treatments were incubated in vitro with buffered-rumen fluid in four replicates (represented by three incubation units per replicate), conducted for 48 h at 39oC. Gas production and methane emission were measured at regular time point intervals. After the incubation, digestibility, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia and microbial counts were determined. Results showed that the highest dry matter digestibility was shown by R5 and the best reduction of methane emission was shown by R2 at 12 h of incubation. In conclusion, supplementation of probiotics did not affect the digestibility of ration based on oil palm by-products but A. noterae addition was potential to mitigate ruminal methane emission.
  Sari P. Dewi , Muhammad Ridla , Erika B. Laconi and Anuraga Jayanegara
  Background and Objective: Both corn and sugarcane by-products have high fiber content but low nutritive quality, which leads to decreased livestock productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the use of fiber cracking technology (FCT) to improve the nutritive quality of corn and sugarcane by-products. Feeds used in this experiment included corn straw, corn husks, corn cobs, sugarcane tops and bagasse. Materials and Methods: The feeds were combined with 5% urea and added to the FCT operated at a temperature of 135°C and a pressure of 2.30 atm for 2.5 h. The treatments tested in this study included the following: T1 (untreated corn straw), T2 (corn straw+FCT+5% urea), T3 (untreated corn husk), T4 (corn husk+FCT+5% urea), T5 (untreated corn cob), T6 (corn cob+FCT+5% urea), T7 (untreated sugarcane top), T8 (sugarcane top+FCT+5% urea), T9 (untreated bagasse) and T10 (bagasse+FCT+5% urea), with each one replicated 4 times. A Van Soest analysis was performed to determine the fiber fraction and in vitro analysis was used to measure the digestibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to confirm the decrease in the fiber fraction in the samples. Results: The FCT+5% urea treatment decreased the fiber fraction (NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin) content of corn and sugarcane by-products. Through SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis, it was shown that the FCT+5% urea treatment destroyed the cell wall structure, decreased the cellulose crystallinity index and broke down the fiber fraction bonds. In addition, the treatment generally increased the IVDMD, IVOMD and ruminal ammonia concentration (p<0.05), decreased the propionate proportion (p<0.05) and elevated the methane emission and the ratio of acetate to propionate (p<0.05). However, the treatment did not affect the acetate, butyrate, valerate or total VFA concentrations. Conclusion: The combination of FCT+urea treatment can effectively improve the quality of corn and sugarcane by-products.
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