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Articles by Anu Rahal
Total Records ( 23 ) for Anu Rahal
  Amit Kumar , Amit K. Verma , Neeraj K. Gangwar and Anu Rahal
  M. bovis is a common respiratory pathogen for cattle but it may produce similar disease complex conditions. It can be transmitted through litter, tools and the hands and clothing of the owners and handlers in sheep and goats. In comparisons to other mycoplasmas M. bovis shows relatively high resistance under some environmental conditions. The occurrence in sheep is rare but it causes severe economic losses. The present study revealed an outbreak of pneumonia in sheep flock leading to high morbidity and mortality. To get an idea of etiological agent of outbreak the samples were collected from morbid animals and during the postmortem from dead animals. Nasal and tracheal swabs, blood, serum, faecal samples and tissues from multiple organs were collected and examined in laboratory. The M. bovis was the etiological agent isolated from nasal swabs and lungs of infected and dead animals, respectively. Histopathological findings also supported mycoplasmic lesions in dead animals. As the success of treatment of the respiratory diseases due to M. bovis depends on the right choice of the compound, its distribution in the tissues and last but not least the simultaneous antibacterial effect in secondary and mixed infections, the in vitro antimicrobial drug sensitivity was performed to select the drug of choice for treatment. The antibiogram of isolate revealed Tylosin and Enrofloxacin with remarkable zone of inhibition. Therefore, tylosin was recommended as drug for treatment and flock recovered with in the period of 15 days. There was no further mortality and all the infected sheep recovered from the signs of illness. This seems to be the first report of M. bovis outbreak in sheep in country.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal and Vinod Kumar
  Not Available.
  Arvind Kumar , Anu Rahal , Ram Ragvendra , Atul Prakash , Rajesh Mandil and S.K. Garg
  Levofloxacin is a third generation fluoroquinolone with excellent tissue penetration and efficacy against respiratory and urogenital bacterial infections. In the present study, disposition kinetics of levofloxacin was studied in cattle calves following an intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose rate of 10 mg kg-1. Blood was collected at predetermined time intervals and plasma was separated. Plasma concentrations of levofloxacin were determined using the HPLC assay method (R2 = 0.999). Plasma concentration versus time data was subjected to compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear iterative computer software “PHARMKIT”. Following intravenous and intramuscular administration of levofloxacin in cattle calves (10 mg kg-1), the plasma concentration versus time data of levofloxacin was best described by two-compartment open model and one-compartment open model with first order absorption rate constant with modest bioavailability values, respectively. The mean values for t½α and t½β were 0.05±0.01 h and 2.12±0.21 h, respectively for i.v. route. The values of AUC, Vdarea and ClB were found to be 29.32±1.19 μg mL-1 h, 1.05±0.10 L kg-1 and 0.34±0.01 L h-1 kg-1, respectively while the ratio of drug concentrations between the tissues and plasma (T/P) was 4.47±02.09. For i.m. route, the mean (±SE) values of t1/2Ka, t½β, AUC, MAT, MRT and F were found to be 0.51±0.09 h, 2.76±0.36 h, 18.43±2.15 μg mL-1 h, 1.85±0.46 h, 4.72±0.72 h and 62.65±5.99%, respectively. Based on the pharmacodynamic indices, the optimal dose of levofloxacin in cattle calves may be proposed as 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. repeated at 24 h interval preferably by intravenous route for treating common microbial infections of veterinary importance.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Anu Rahal , Mahima and Shoor Vir Singh
  Since, last several years, efforts are going on to eradicate or eliminate a number of infectious diseases of animals, with mixed success. Basically for eradicating, eliminating or controlling any infectious disease isolation and quarantine of sick animals as well as animals suspected for disease; strengthening disease monitoring and surveillance, effective vaccines and vaccination strategies along with other control measures including of treatment are of utmost importance. Most importantly a significant knowledge is required for countering infectious diseases and assessing the criteria for selection of disease to be eradicated next. The role of environmental factors in the process of disease dynamics need to be understood which further plays a contributory role in the process of combating and elimination of diseases. Despite continuous efforts against animal diseases like Rinderpest, Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Foot-and-mouth disease, Rinderpest (cattle plague) is the only one that is successfully eradicated till date in India. However, control programmes on CBPP also brought a significant reduction in the incidence of the disease but eradication status is yet to be declared. While the other disease control programmes viz., Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMDCP), National Control Programme on Brucellosis (NCPB), National Control Programme of Peste des Petits Ruminants (NCPPPR) and Avian Influenza: Preparedness, Control and Containment could not achieve the desired success. Nowadays, with the achievement of the global eradication status on rinderpest there is again a renewed interest in disease eradication and control of infectious diseases of animals and alleviating their public health concerns. The focus is also being given in the 12th five year plan of the country on monitoring and control of certain animal diseases of economic importance. In view of above facts, this is right time to discuss the strategies for combating and eradicating important infectious diseases of animals with particular reference to India, achievements of global rinderpest eradication programme and reasons thereof and possibly apply lessons while planning for the future activities. This article describes various prevention and control strategies for controlling the infectious diseases of animals that have been or should be targeted for eradication or elimination, direct and indirect benefits from control programmes, issues and opportunities for the future.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Arvind Kumar Sharma and Anu Rahal
  Since last decade, there is increasing reports of presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing bacteria especially from enterobacteriacae family. The presence of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing E. coli causes a serious public health threat to human beings. The present study reports the isolation of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing α hemolytic Escherichia coli in Yellow-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus malabaricus) chicks. Escherichia coli organisms were isolated from three chicks suffering from unusual clinical signs and died before rehabilitation in the month of August 2010. Further assessment of isolates revealed their ability to bind with Congo red dye on Tryptic soy agar media and α hemolytic nature on 5% chicken blood agar. As usual when drug sensitivity was performed it revealed their multi drug resistance pattern which on further examination with double disk method showed them to be extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli. The presence of enterohemorrhagic extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in Yellow-wattled Lapwing is a matter of concern as it may be due to the transmission from human being as these Lapwings are residing in the close vicinity of university premises. Moreover, their nesting areas are also very near to the place where carcasses of dead animals were disposed off during that period of time. To the best or our knowledge, this appears to be the first report of pathogenic E. coli identified in Yellow-wattled Lapwing, implicating Yellow-wattled Lapwings as a new potential reservoir of these zoonotic pathogens.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Vinod Kumar and Anu Rahal
  With the advancement of science, there is a rising interest in poultry biotechnology for changing the composition of egg by nutritional as well as genetic manipulations for the human well beings. These alterations are in change in cholesterol level, fatty acids and adding therapeutic pharmaceutical compounds etc. For acceptance of this designer egg we have to address some of the legal, ethical and social aspects along with its economic production.
  Lalita Sharma , Amit Kumar Verma , Anu Rahal , Amit Kumar and Rajesh Nigam
  Background and Objective: Mastitis causes significant economic losses in dairy industry globally. The present study evaluated levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) along with enzymic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the serum samples, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in skimmedmilk of dairy animals (cows and buffaloes) showing sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis. Methodology: A total of 100 lactating animals were divided into two groups i.e., cattle and buffaloes, each group contain 50 animals. Each group is further divided into three subgroups healthy (10), sub-clinical mastitis (20) and clinical mastitis (20). Blood serum and defatted milk were used for enzyme activity estimations. Results: The LDH and ALP activities along with LPO levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SCM and CM the milk as compared to healthy milk from udders. Non significant differences were observed in BUN values. The mean activities of GPx were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in SCM and CM milk than in healthy milk. Increased lipid peroxidation in serum and milk indicated direct correlation between oxidative stress and tissue damage in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy animals. Conclusion: From the present study, it may be suggested that optimum antioxidant intake carry sufficient potential in affording protection against sub-clinical and clinical mastitis in the dairy animals.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Vinod Kumar and Anu Rahal
  Recently there is a rising interest in dairy biotechnology for altering the composition of milk by nutritional and genetic manipulations for the well being of human. These alterations are in milk fat, milk protein, lactose contents, humanization of bovine milk, adding therapeutic proteins etc. For acceptance of this designer milk we have to address certain ethical, legal and social aspects along with economic production of designer milk.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Amit Kumar , K. Karthik , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amarpal , Shoor Vir Singh and Anu Rahal
  Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains have further aggravated the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators, bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day. Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats.
  Anu Rahal , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Sanjay Kapoor , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  At present, almost every third person in the society is under stress and having chronic disorders like diabetes, arthritis, allergy, cardiovascular disease, fatigue and even cancer. Recently, there is decline in the physical and mental capabilities along with the social values. So this certainly should raise the alarms as to why such deterioration is taking place in the society or what are the changes in the lifestyle that might have a role direct/indirect in evolution of such changes? Vegetable is an immense store of active chemical compounds and considered as the cheapest and most easily available sources of carbohydrate, fiber, proteins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids. The intake of green and leafy vegetables lowers the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, anemia, cancer, oxidative stress, diabetes, weight gain etc. In recent time, vegetables have also been identified as safe and economic expression system for producing the recombinant proteins including the vaccines against many infectious diseases like hepatitis B, malaria, rotavirus, HIV, Helicobacter pylori, pestedes petits ruminants etc. However, besides the beneficial effect, contaminated and raw vegetables harbors pesticide residues and many pathogenic microbes viz., norovirus, Salmonella, E. coli, Shigella, Listeria monocytogens and also prove to be an excellent source of disease outbreaks. The present review highlights the phytonutrients and neutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables; their medicinal and health benefits for humans and their domestic as well as companion animals along with their fruitful practical applications and perspectives like bioreactor for producing vaccine along with the methods that can increase their nutritional benefits.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Shanker Kumar Singh , Anu Rahal , Iftekhar Ahmed , Deepti Singh , Aashish Pratap Singh and Lalit Singh
  Globally, Campylobacters have been reported as leading cause of gastroenteritis in man as well as animals and considered as emerging zoonotic problem particularly in developing countries including India. A cross-sectional study was conducted to know the prevalence and epidemiological determinants for Campylobacter spp. in dogs in and around Mathura city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Based on isolation, cultural and biochemical characterization of bacteria, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 34.24%. Younger dogs (less than 1 year of age) were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. High prevalence of Campylobacter spp. supports the hypothesis that dogs, particularly younger animals, may be an important source of Campylobacter infection for humans. Breed-wise prevalence showed that non-descript dogs (45.97%) were more likely to carry Campylobacter infections. Dogs showing clinical signs of gastroenteritis were showing higher prevalence (47.21%) in comparison to that of animals without gastro-intestinal disorders (15.04%). Out of 113 Campylobacter isolates of canine origin, two isolates were resistant to all the nineteen antibiotics used in the study, while all the isolates were resistant to Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Amoxycillin, Aztreonam, Lincomycin, Tetracyclin, Oxytetracyclin and Penicillin. A high rate of resistance was observed to Cefotaxim (97.35%), Peefloxacin (91.15%), Chloramphenicol (90.27%), Ofloxacin (84.07%), Ciprofloxacin (83.18%), Cefaclor (80.53%), Nitrofurazone (76.11%), Norfloxacin (74.33%), Gentamicin (42.48%), Amikacin (40.71%) and Enrofloxacin (36.28%). Our results indicate Amikacin and Gentamicin as drugs suitable for the treatment of campylobacteriosis in dogs.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Shyma K. Latheef , Hari Abdul Samad , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar and Anu Rahal
  Signaling molecules of immune system are cytokines that may either stimulate or suppress the responses of various cells involved in host immune mechanisms and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is one of the leading members of the group of cytokines. TNF-α from activated macrophages and LT-α/TNF-Β from T cells have now become representatives of a distinctive superfamily of cytokine ligands (TNF ligand superfamily) along with their corresponding receptors (TNF receptor superfamily); altogether constituting the TNF Superfamily. These are highly conserved proteins, found in all mammals having important ligand members which interact with the either of the two receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, that initiate varied signaling cascades leading to diverse cellular responses. It has been established that the appropriate regulation of TNF ligand and receptor interactions and functions are crucial for the proper immune system activity. Excessive production of various TNF cytokines has been attributed with the development of an array of autoimmune as well as inflammatory conditions. TNF cytokines help to reduce mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Therapeutic TNF blockers include:monoclonal antibodies to TNF (Infliximab and Adalumimab) and TNF receptor fusion proteins (Etanercept and Lenercept) and are effective against rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; psoriasis and asthma. Preclinical studies conducted in murine models and the pivotal role played by the TNF superfamily in cytokine mediator system will make it easier for researchers as well as scientists to develop novel drugs in near future. This review has covered all these aspects concerning TNF as mediator of inflammatory diseases and its therapeutic targeting.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal , Shyma K. Latheef , Mohd Yaqoob Wani and Sanjay Kapoor
  Avian/Bird flu, caused by Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family, is the most fearful viral disease of birds. H5N1 subtype of AIV is of major concern for poultry as well as for humans due to its high economical impacts and zoonotic concerns. During the past ten years, the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype alone has affected more than 60 countries of the world. Domestic poultry is mostly affected by the disease episodes and outbreaks. Wild and migratory birds are the AIV reservoirs wherein H5N1 is found to be lethal. Major antigenic changes in Haemagglutinin (HA) or Neuraminidase (NA) result in periodic pandemics. Pigs can act as mixing vessel. The bird flu virus if gets the capability of transmitting from human to human can trigger a pandemic claiming millions of lives. A wide variety of serological tests and molecular tools have greatly aided in the diagnosis of avian flu. Disease management for the prevention of bird flu outbreaks including mass awareness and pandemic preparedness following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines is of utmost importance. Interesting approaches of HPAI control are development of universal influenza virus vaccines and universal antibodies-based flu therapies. Vaccination using inactivated and recombinant vaccines is the common strategy adopted in different parts of the globe. Development of new generation vaccines is quiet noteworthy. Tamiflu is the drug of choice. Herbal therapy is gaining much attention to control disease in humans. All these aspects of the bird flu virus have been discussed vividly in the present review.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal , Vinod Kumar and Debashis Roy
  Selenium is an essential trace element in the diets which is required for maintenance of health, growth and biochemical-physiological functions. The area covered in this review has been rapidly unfolding in recent years and has already acquired a vast spread. This study presents a concise introductory overview of the effect of organic and inorganic selenium on growth performance, carcass traits, daily egg production, egg quality, Se uptake in various tissues and plasma and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in animals.
  Mahima , Anu Rahal , Rajib Deb , Shyma K. Latheef , Hari Abdul Samad , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar and K. Dhama
  Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God’s gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known “Sanjeevani booti” described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of ‘the botanical garden of the world’. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , K. Dhama , Rajib Deb , Anu Rahal , Mahima and Sandip Chakraborty
  Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, affects both humans and animals and is among the most common but neglected direct zoonotic disease in the world, particularly in untreated or undiagnosed animals as well as humans. Now, it has been considered as a re-emerging disease causing global health problem due to its increasing incidences in developing as well as developed nations. It is a multisystemic disease leading to death. Diagnostic tests of importance are Latex Agglutination Test (LAT), lateral flow and immunoglobulin M (IgM) based ELISA, PCR based assays, Multiple-microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Molecular tools like PCR-RFLP, real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, qPCR and immunocapture PCR have all been found useful for rapid and confirmatory detection and differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic leptospires. Inactivated/killed and attenuated vaccines are always attempted, since the beginning of vaccine and vaccination story, against all emerging pathogens with mixed success stories. The advanced tools and techniques like recombinant DNA technology, reverse genetics, DNA vaccination, molecular genetics and proteomics approaches are being explored for search of novel antigens, proteins and genes as potential candidates to discover safer, efficient and better vaccines for leptospirosis. The present review highlights the leptospirosis, susceptible population, disease transmission and epidemiology, treatment, trends and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and vaccination strategies in humans and animals with a view to combat this organism having public health significance.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Subhash Malik , Manoj Kumar Gupta , Arvind Sharma and Anu Rahal
  E. coli, often highly pathogenic in neonatal and immuno-compromised patients, are usually supposed susceptible to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, however with the time and also due to the extensive use of chemotherapeutic agents irrespective of their susceptibility, have evolved drug resistant strains. Moreover, the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing enteric pathogens is a serious issue. In this context the present study was conducted to find out occurrence of extended spectrum Beta-lactamases producing alpha hemolytic Escherichia coli in neonates, of less than one month of age, suffering from diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected from various private hospitals in Mathura and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. With the help of hospital nursing staffs sterilized stool samples were collected and processed for isolation of E. coli. The double disk diffusion method was applied to assess the ESBL production. E. coli organisms were isolated from 39 kids out of 120 samples. The assessment of isolates revealed alpha hemolytic nature of 23 isolates on 5% sheep blood agar. As usual when drug sensitivity was performed that revealed their multi drug resistance pattern which on further examination with double disk method showed 17 of them to be extended spectrum β-lactamases producing E. coli. The presence of enterohemorrhagic extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in kids is a matter of concern and public health importance as it may be due to the transmission from hospital itself during the birth time or post birth admission period.
  Anu Rahal , A. H. Ahmad , Amit Kumar , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Every time a drug is administered to the animal to treat an ailment, no matter whether it is acute or chronic manifestation, it usually goes together with some other prescription medicine, OTC (Over the counter) formulation, herbs or even food. All the xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and food components as well as the endogenous compound that are formed in the animal body as a routine phenomenon exert a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the different physiological and biochemical processes going in the body. These effects may alter the normal metabolism and/or drug transport or its efficacy drastically and thus expose the man and animals to the risk of a potentially dangerous interaction. The present review discusses these potential reactions and their mechanisms that help in navigating the hazardous combinations of drugs with other medicines, food, herbs, vitamins and minerals with confidence.
  Mahima , Anu Rahal , Atul Prakash , Amit Kumar Verma , Vinod Kumar and Debashish Roy
  Tinospora cordifolia also known as Giloy or Guduchi, is an indigenous climber plant indigenous to tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Its stem is used for treatment of fever, jaundice, emaciation, skin ailments, diabetes, anaemia and various infectious diseases. The study was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia. The proximate analyses were carried out using standard methods, while mineral elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, equipped with air acetylene flame. The proximate analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia showed that it contained moisture 34.39%, ether extract 0.912%, crude protein 7.74%, crude fibre 56.42%, total ash 7.96%, nitrogen free extract 26.97%, cellulose 23.02% and hemicellulose 3.70%. The mineral analysis of the stems showed that they contain the following essential minerals: Calcium (102.23 ppm), phosphorous (24.81 ppm), iron (26.058 ppm), copper (3.733 ppm), zinc (7.342 ppm) and manganese (12.242 ppm). The study revealed that Tinospora cordifolia stems to be a potential source of nutrition and minerals for man as well as animals.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Arvind Kumar Sharma and Anu Rahal
  Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal and Sanjay Kapoor
  Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns incuding of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.
  Anita , Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Manoj Kumar Gupta and Anu Rahal
  The present study was taken to understand the status of water resources in the holy city of Mathura, India. As it is a tourist place and pilgrims come from all around the world, there are more chances of spread of pathogens through them. The pathogens which are particularly excreted through urine and feces are most commonly excreted out. E. coli is one of them which causes many severe diseases particularly in neonatal calves or neonates of human. As the city has its limitation of accommodation and river Yamuna is also shrinking, the pressure of millions of pilgrims has enormous, drastic and stipulated effect on water resources particularly river Yamuna. The samples collected showed the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Out of total 100 samples 40 were found positive for E. coli. The 60 samples of different water resources showed the presence of E. coli in 26 samples while 14 were found positive out of 40 samples of Yamuna water. The total coliforms count ranged between 1.08 log10 CFU m L-1 to 6.34 log10 CFU m L-1 in drinking water sources and waste water, respectively. The high percentage of positive samples and coliforms count may be because of the method and place of sample collection. When these isolates were analyzed for antibiotic sensitivity pattern against some commonly used antibiotics. They showed a variable effectiveness against them. The number of resistant isolate is significant enough to make an alert at the earliest to protect the water resources and also to secure better and brighter future of human population.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Anu Rahal , Pramod Kumar Panwar and K. Dhama
  Adjuvants are used as a carrier of antigen in modern vaccine therapy. These are heterogeneous compounds which are administered with antigens to elicit better immune response against co-administered antigens by stimulating the immune responses. Ideally, an adjuvant should not be mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic and it should not produce any autoimmune disease. However, many of the adjuvants used in vaccine preparation have one or another side effect. The present paper describes in brief the history, development and recent trends in the adjuvant of vaccine.
 
 
 
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