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Articles by Anton Korenevsky
Total Records ( 2 ) for Anton Korenevsky
  Yongsheng Ma , Jennifer C. Pacan , Qi Wang , Yongping Xu , Xiaoqing Huang , Anton Korenevsky and Parviz M. Sabour
  This paper reports the development of microencapsulated bacteriophage Felix O1 for oral delivery using a chitosan-alginate-CaCl2 system. In vitro studies were used to determine the effects of simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and bile salts on the viability of free and encapsulated phage. Free phage Felix O1 was found to be extremely sensitive to acidic environments and was not detectable after a 5-min exposure to pHs below 3.7. In contrast, the number of microencapsulated phage decreased by 0.67 log units only, even at pH 2.4, for the same period of incubation. The viable count of microencapsulated phage decreased only 2.58 log units during a 1-h exposure to SGF with pepsin at pH 2.4. After 3 h of incubation in 1 and 2% bile solutions, the free phage count decreased by 1.29 and 1.67 log units, respectively, while the viability of encapsulated phage was fully maintained. Encapsulated phage was completely released from the microspheres upon exposure to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) within 6 h. The encapsulated phage in wet microspheres retained full viability when stored at 4°C for the duration of the testing period (6 weeks). With the use of trehalose as a stabilizing agent, the microencapsulated phage in dried form had a 12.6% survival rate after storage for 6 weeks. The current encapsulation technique enables a large proportion of bacteriophage Felix O1 to remain bioactive in a simulated gastrointestinal tract environment, which indicates that these microspheres may facilitate delivery of therapeutic phage to the gut.
  Oleg Stukalov , Anton Korenevsky , Terry J. Beveridge and John R. Dutcher
  Bacteria can possess an outermost assembly of polysaccharide molecules, a capsule, which is attached to their cell wall. We have used two complementary, high-resolution microscopy techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to study bacterial capsules of four different gram-negative bacterial strains: Escherichia coli K30, Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1, Shewanella oneidensis MR-4, and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. TEM analysis of bacterial cells using different preparative techniques (whole-cell mounts, conventional embeddings, and freeze-substitution) revealed capsules for some but not all of the strains. In contrast, the use of AFM allowed the unambiguous identification of the presence of capsules on all strains used in the present study, including those that were shown by TEM to be not encapsulated. In addition, the use of AFM phase imaging allowed the visualization of the bacterial cell within the capsule, with a depth sensitivity that decreased with increasing tapping frequency.
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