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Articles by Anton Eko Satrio
Total Records ( 2 ) for Anton Eko Satrio
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: It is important to compare the effect of extremely different rainfall conditions on soil carbon storage of lowland tropical peat swamp forest. Therefore, under these natural rainfall gradient, the objectives of this study were to determine whether rainfall affects soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest and to determine what correlations between variables occurs which stimulate soil carbon storage changes of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted in two different plots (0.3 ha each plot) to a depth of 15 cm under two extremely different mean rainfall at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. The calculation of carbon storage was by the bulk density method. Comparison between paired means of soil carbon storage under two different rainfall gradients were tested using paired t-test and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables (pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon). Results: The percentage of stable carbon count of unstable carbon was 42.93% under lower rainfall, while that of higher rainfall was 62.69 %. It suggests that this natural tropical peat swamp forest plays an important role as a sink rather than a source of carbon under higher rainfall but inversely under lower rainfall. It also suggests that soil organic matter tends to decompose and releases CO2 by oxidation under lower rainfall. Stable carbon positively correlated with humic acid yield for the two areas with different rainfall (p<0.01, r = 1.00). However, under higher rainfall, stable carbon also positively correlated with soil organic matter (p<0.05, r = 0.42) and total carbon (p<0.05, r = 0.42). It was found that stable carbon negatively correlated with soil acidity on both higher (p<0.05, r = -0.51) and lower rainfall areas (p<0.01, r = -0.54). However, that association appeared prominent under lower rainfall. Conclusion: Anaerobic environment is more prominent under higher rainfall and may facilitate high value of soil carbon storage in the soil profile of tropical peat swamp forest and allow this ecosystem to function as a carbon sink. During lower rainfall, water availability in tropical peat swamp forest may stimulate this ecosystem to maintain its soil acidity by releasing more CO2 in soil air and becomes a source rather than a sink of carbon.
  Anton Eko Satrio , Seca Gandaseca , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  Problem statement: There is still lack of a study that compares the soil carbon storage of kuda-kuda skidding system and excavator skidding system in tropical peat swamp forests. The objective of this study was to determine whether skidding operations affects soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted on two different plots (0.3 ha each plot) to a depth of 15 cm under different skidding systems at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Plots were in the same forest concession area but considerably independent from each other. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. The calculation of carbon storage was by the bulk density method. Unpaired t-test was used to compare variables under the two systems and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables (pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon). Results: Soil organic matter, total carbon and unstable carbon were found to be negatively correlated with nitrogen but positively correlated with C/N ratio under kuda-kuda skidding system indicating that the lower nitrogen and higher C/N ratio markedly slowed decomposition process and enabled soil organic matter to accumulate as well as total carbon. Unstable carbon stocks under excavator skidding system was found to be higher (130.200 Mg ha-1) compared with kuda-kuda skidding system (117.124 Mg ha-1), under kuda-kuda skidding system, unstable carbon stock seemed to be preserved better and this was because of the better carbon storage. Although stable carbon contents of the two systems were similar, the excavator skidding system had faster decomposition processes, thus unstable carbon stocks decomposed more and this probably affects its function as carbon storage for further periods. Total phosphorus positively correlated with nitrogen but negatively correlated with C/N ratio under kuda-kuda skidding system, indicating that low nitrogen (0.914%) results in high C/N ratio (55.236) and this may have affected phosphorus (0.024%), thus enabled organic material to accumulate instead of losses through decomposition process. The low phosphorus (0.024%) or high C/P ratio (2346.345) under kuda-kuda skidding system resulted in decreased soil pH (3.552), thus enabled soil organic matter (97.603%) and total carbon (48.802%) to accumulate as well as unstable carbon stocks (117.124 Mg ha-1). Conclusion: The application of skidding systems in this peat swamp forest possibly alters their carbon storage particularly unstable carbon by altering their decomposition rates. Kuda-kuda skidding system is able to maintain decomposition process in this peat swamp forest. Hence, unstable carbon stocks can be preserved for further persistent breakdown processes, hence maintaining their function for carbon storage.
 
 
 
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