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Articles by Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu
Total Records ( 6 ) for Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu
  Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu
  The mineral, amino acid and vitamin compositions of the rind and seed flours of Charleston gray variety of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) were investigated, using standard methods. The mineral (mg/100 g) in the rind and seed, respectively viz: calcium (28±0.01, 54±0.02), phosphorous (129.7±0.01, 614.3±0.02), sodium (11.4±0.04, 87.0±0.06), potassium (21.7±0.00, 524.0±0.04), magnesium (30.4±0.01, 509.1±0.03), manganese (1.30±0.01, 6.40±0.04), iron (4.63±0.00, 7.08±0.01), copper (0.4±0.01, 0.7±0.00) and zinc (1.25±0.01, 10.13±0.02) was, aside that of copper (±0.3), significantly (p<0.05) higher in the seed. The value of the amino acids (g/100 g) in the seed sample viz: glutamate (11.43±0.01) followed by arginine (6.12±0.06), isoleucine (4.27±0.10), aspartate (2.81±0.01), glycine (2.47±0.03), leucine (2.09±0.01), valine (1.71±0.03), alanine (1.43±0.04), lysine (1.01±0.04), histidine (0.80±0.00), tryptophan (0.40±0.00) and cystine (0.39±0.02) was higher (p<0.05) than the corresponding value (0.00±0.00) in the rind sample. The vitamin composition in mg/100 g for the rind and seed, respectively for retinol (vitamin A) (50.15±1.41, 70.10±1.04), niacin (vitamin B3) (0.04±0.1, 3.32±0.00), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (7.23±0.02, 6.8±0.03), thiamine (vitamin B1) (0.03±0.01, 0.20±0.00), riboflavin (vitamin B2) (0.02±0.1, 0.15±0.04) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) (0.04±0.00, 0.09±0.01) was higher (p<0.05) in the seed flour for retinol and niacin. The preponderance of these nutrients in the, especially seed, samples, may be of nutritional and physiological importance warranting further studies to increase the dietary use of these food wastes and reduce the attendant burden in the environment.
  Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu
  Harnessing food wastes utilization in diets and drugs could improve food supply, health and the environment while antinutrients composition in a food provides an idea of the pharmacologic, dietary and toxic potentials of the food. Thus, this study assessed the antinutrient properties of the rind and seed of watermelon (Citrullus lanantus) which are usually discarded as food wastes in Nigeria, using standard protocols. The antinutrients (mg/100 g) in the rind and seed, respectively viz: saponin (3.0±0.03, 2.31±0.01), alkaloid (1.39±0.00, 0.36±1.03), tannins (1.33±0.01, 0.61±0.01), phenol (0.53±0.00, 0.12±0.01) and flavonoid (2.87±0.00, 2.03±0.02) were higher in the rind than in the seed. The content (mg/100 g) in the seed for cyanide (0.79±0.01), phytate (0.63±1.00) and oxalate (0.09±0.00) was higher than that in the rind for cyanide (0.00±0.00), phytate (0.46±0.00) and oxalate (0.08±0.01). The recorded difference in the antinutreints content in the rind and seed samples was not significant (p>0.05), hence negligible. The preponderance of these antinutrients in a comparatively lower amount in the samples suggests that the watermelon rind and seed may offer pharmacologic and dietary benefits at a possibly lower toxic risk. Thus, the study supports the use of watermelon rind and seed as food and/or as drug in ethnomedication. Further studies to harness and enhance the utilization of watermelon rind and seed in diets and drugs are required to reduce their attendant waste burden in the environment.
  Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu , Daniel C. Nkwazema and Lawrence U.S. Ezeanyika
  The health concerns about working in a petroleum depot without wearing a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) warranted this study. The anthropometric, lipid profile and blood pressure status were assessed by standard methods in asymptomatic adult male depot workers (n = 64) and male university students (n = 64), in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria. The concentration (mmol L-1) of total cholesterol (5.21±0.90), triacylglycerol (1.23±0.20) and very low density lipoprotein (0.56±0.19) respectively in the serum of the depot workers were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the control (5.09±0.04, 1.15±0.04 and 0.52±0.09). The body weight (73.75±0.11 kg), height (1.72±0.1 m) and body mass index, BMI, (24.58±0.73 kg m‾2) of the depot workers were higher (p>0.05) than that of the control. The Blood Pressure (BP) of the exposed group (120/90±1.38 mmHg) and the control (120/80±1.14 mmHg) differed only in the Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) by 10 mmHg and in the calculated systolic to diastolic blood pressure ratio (SBP:DBP) by 0.17. The study suggested cardiovascular risks and impaired lipid metabolism in the petroleum depot workers. The health implications of this study warrant a follow up perhaps, in a larger population and sample size. The study underscored the need for the petroleum depot workers to wear personal protective equipment and to assess their health status on a regular basis.
  Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu and Daniel C. Nkwazema
  The health concerns for petroleum workers warranted this study in asymptomatic exposed (n=64) and control (n=64) groups. The serum activity (IU L–1) in the exposed group for alanine amino transferase, ALT (49.25±5.28), aspartate amino transferase, AST (68.23±6.95), alkaline phosphatase, ALP (59.23±7.21) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, GGT (36.06±6.99) was comparatively higher (p<0.05) than that in the control (21.56±7.68, 47.89±7.14, 29.53±6.31 and 18.11±4.00, respectively) by 128.43, 42.47, 100.58 and 99.12%. The serum concentration for total bilirubin, TB (22.89±6.78 μmol L–1) and conjugated bilirubin, CB (17.65±4.77 μmol L–1) in the exposed group was higher (p<0.05) than that in the control group (11.59±2.10 and 7.53±1.71 μmol L–1) by 97.50 and 134.40%, respectively whereas the computed TB:CB ratio (1.30±1.62) was lower (p<0.05) than that in the control group (1.54±2.33) by 15.58%. Aside the AST:ALT ratio (1.39±1.26) that was lower (p<0.05) than that in the control (2.22±1.84) by 37.39%, the other observations in the exposed group for computed serum ALT:AST ratio (0.72±2.42), ALT:ALP ratio (0.83±2.33) and CB:TB ratio (0.77±2.72) were higher (p<0.05) than that in the control (0.45±3.45, 0.73±2.04 and 0.65±3.11) by 60.00, 13.70 and 18.46%, respectively. The study suggests dysfunctional liver and other organs, with the attendant health implications in the petroleum depot workers, highlighting the need for health caution and protection.
  Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu
  The proximate and functional properties of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind and seed flour were investigated, using standard methods. The proximate compositions (%) for the rind and seed, respectively were moisture (5.12±0.01, 3.81±0.00), dry matter (94.88±0.01, 96.20±0.00), lipid/fat (1.05±0.01, 41.84±0.04), crude protein (7.04±0.00, 21.46±0.04), carbohydrate (80.75±0.04, 28.05±0.06), crude ash (3.07±0.00, 2.48±0.01) and crude fibre (2.98±0.00, 2.37±0.00). The energy value (360.59±0.01, 574.58±0.30 kcal), total sugar (0.47±0.01, 3.23±0.02%) and total soluble sugar (1.42±0.01, 4.87±0.00%), respectively for the rind and seed were lower in the rind than in the seed sample. The functional properties (%) for the rind and seed, respectively viz. water absorption capacity (7.13±00, 116.3±00), oil absorption capacity (1.65±00, 123.5±00), foaming capacity (5.65±00, 21.5±00), foaming stability (20.75±00, 60.5±00) and emulsion stability (0.28±00) were higher in the seed sample. The difference in value of the parameters for the samples, aside emulsion stability, ash and fibre, were significant (p<0.05). The results imply that the flour of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed, followed by that of the rind, has nutrient, energy, storage and industrial potentials which could increase their utilization thereby preventing a possible adverse environmental effect.
  Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu and Daniel C. Nzewi
  The local practice of boiling bread-fruit seeds with food-waste ash infusion, while desirous on environmental ground, may affect the nutritional and sensory characteristics of the porridge, warranting this study. Five bread-fruit seeds samples were separately boiled with ash infusion from palm bunch (PBI), plantain leave (PLI), corncob (CCI), groundnut shell (GSI) and without ash infusion (TW). Compared with the control (TW), the recorded range: 11.98±0.57-13.24±1.15% (moisture), 17.64±0.13-18.24±0.57% (protein), 2.61±0.58-2.75±0.03% (crude fibre), 1.90±0.06-2.04±0.06% (crude fat), 3.19±0.17-3.36±0.02% (ash), 60.56±0.06-62.65±0.11% (carbohydrate), 5.10±0.05-5.32±0.07 mg/100 g (calcium) and 6.94±0.02-6.97±0.05 mg/100 g (potassium) were not significant (p>0.05). However, the range 3.58±0.04-4.24±0.08 mg/100 g (iron), 1.8±0.17-4.5±0.12% (texture), 1.3±0.05-4.2±0.06% (aroma), 2.0±0.06-4.0±0.11% (taste), 2.6±0.06-4.6±0.05 (color) and 1.9±0.05-4.2 ±0.17 (general acceptability) were significant (p<0.05). The effect of the various ash infusions on most of the studied nutritional properties of the bread-fruit was not significant, hence, could be negligible. The difference in the iron and sensory characteristics values for PBI sample were significant (p<0.05) when compared with the control and those for the other ash infusions, suggesting the overriding effect of boiling with palm bunch infusion on these parameters. The study supports the local use of these ash infusions and their preference for PBI in preparing bread-fruit meal while suggesting a beneficial use of these hitherto food wastes. The potential of these ash infusions (especially PBI) to improve the iron content and sensory properties of the bread-fruit is nutritionally noteworthy hence warrants further study.
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