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Articles by Anil Kumar
Total Records ( 17 ) for Anil Kumar
  K.M. Nidhi , Sanjar Alam , Yatendra Kumar , Anil Kumar , K.M. Uma and Naveen Sharma
  Cimetidine is histamine (H2 blocker). It is used in the treatment of ulcer, acid-peptic disease and heartburn. It is also known as an H2-receptor antagonist who is responsible for inhibiting acid development in the stomach. The Aim and objective of this work was to build up a gastro retentive drug delivery system. The cimetidine used as a model drug for making mucoadhesive dosage form. This formulation can be achieved by using ionic gelation method. The model drug used in this work plan is categorized in the treatment of antiulcer. The extended-release mucoadhesive microspheres of model drug provide constant plasma concentration with a less frequent administration and also reduce the side effects to some extent. They provide good administration and enhance patient compliance. The present study aims to develop mucoadhesive microspheres of model drug using Sodium alginate and Carbopol 934 used as an excellent mucoadhesive agent which can adhere on the gastrointestinal membrane for sustained drug delivery in the stomach. The calcium chloride was also used for making solvent system and to evaluate the model drug mucoadhesive microspheres in-vitro for their drug release pattern FTIR, SEM and DSC curve. The mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by ionic gelation method by using polymers like carbopol 934 used as mucoadhesive polymer and sodium alginate as rate controlling polymer. Preformulation study shows no interaction between drug and excipients. The prepared mucoadhesive microspheres of cimetidine shows particle size of between 167.14-218.23 μm. Entrapment efficiency of formulations was found to be 70.06-87.67%. In-vitro drug release after 7 h of F6 formulation show good release was 85.60%. The surface morphology using SEM of prepared microspheres reveals very smooth surface with spherical shape. All prepared formulations exhibits good percentage yield and drug release rate. As the amount of sodium alginates and calcium chloride was increased it reduces percentage drug release. The increased amount of polymer was raised significantly the particle size of microspheres. In-vitro drug release studies were used for indicating that there was a controlled and prolong release of drug in the stomach and intestine. So, we can say the formulation F6 was better candidate of all the developed formulations.
  Anil Kumar , Vinod Chhokar , Ravinder Kumar , Himanshu Aggarwal and Vikas Beniwal
  Background: Triacylglycerols are quantitatively most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. Acyl CoA: Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, EC is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. Objective: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to study the molecular differences in DGAT1 among different ruminants. Materials and Methods: The DGAT1 was partially amplified (411 bp) by designing gene specific primers and confirmed by sequencing the amplicon and its comparison with DGAT1 gene of other ruminants (i.e., bovine, buffalo and goat). Results: Comparative study of DGAT1 among different ruminants reveals different level of mutation with respect to its gene sequence (0.0-0.4%) and protein sequence (0.0-1.2%). Conclusion: Molecular differentiation among different ruminants reveals that bovine and buffalo are very close to each other and sheep is related to goat. Further study is underway to detect polymorphism and associated them with milk fat trait in sheep.
  Navneet K. Dhillon , Milind Gadgil , Andy Rahardja , Shannon Callen , Alex Sidelnik , Duncan Renfrow , Amanda Moradi , Sukhbir Dhillon , Himanshu Kenjale , Anil Kumar and Shilpa J. Buch
  Injection drug use has been recognized as a major risk factor for AIDS from the outset of the epidemic. Cocaine, one of the most widely abused drugs in the United States can both impair the functions of macrophages & CD4+ lymphocytes and also activate HIV-1 expression in these cells. Cocaine is a multifactorial agent that acts globally to impair the functioning of brain resident cells through multiple pathways. The drug not only promotes virus replication in macrophages, microglia and astrocytes, but can also upregulate CCR5 coreceptor, and reciprocally inhibit its ligands, thereby increasing virus infectivity. Cocaine is known to modulate astroglial function and activation. Cocaine causes a myriad of toxic responses in the neurons: a) it synergizes with viral proteins, Tat and gp120 resulting in exacerbated neuronal apoptosis, b) it causes calcium mobilization and, c) generation of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, cocaine also exerts potent effects on microvascular permeability, thereby impacting the influx of virus-infected inflammatory cells in brain parenchyma. By amplifying the various arms of the toxic responses that characterize HIV-associated dementia (HAD), cocaine skews the balance in favor of the virus leading to accelerated progression and severity of dementia.
  Honghong Yao , Crystal Bethel-Brown , Anil Kumar and Shilpa Buch
  Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 µM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 µM but not 1 µM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these findings imply that cocaine in co-operation with HIV protein exacerbates neuronal damage in the brains of HIV-infected cocaine abusers.
  Lisa R. Norman and Anil Kumar
  In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, clinicians may be better able to assist patients to manage their symptoms, thereby increasing the number of patients who are able to successfully maintain difficult treatment schedules. In addition, it is equally important to understand the potentially exacerbating effects of various factors. One such factor is substance abuse, which has been associated with various neuropsychological impairments, irrespective of the substance of abuse. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the effects of substance abuse on the progression of impaired cognitive processes and functioning can allow for an enhanced evaluation and management of those patients who live with HIV disease and who suffer from substance abuse disorders. As such, the present paper provides an overview of the neuropsychology of HIV and substance abuse, as well as of the available research that has examined the potential interaction effects between HIV disease and substance abuse. The implications of the findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.
  Rita Maneju Sunday , Efere Martins Obuotor and Anil Kumar
  Background and Objectives: In India and many other Asian countries, traditional medicinal plants are used for treatment of various diseases. Under the category, Mimosa pudica is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases including diabetes. In recent time, diabetes has become much common disease perhaps due to changed life style. Therefore, in the present study, antidiabetic effect of Mimosa pudica seeds ethanolic extract and extract fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) was investigated in vivo in Wistar rats. Antioxidant study was carried out using in vitro and in vivo models. Materials and Methods: The free radical (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide) scavenging activity and total antioxidant (flavonoid and phenol) contents of the extracts were determined in vitro by spectrophotometric method. In the in vivo studies, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg1 Mimosa pudica seeds ethanolic extract and 200 mg kg1 of each extract fractions were administered to streptozotocin (60 mg kg1) induced diabetic Wistar rats. Results: Mimosa pudica seed extracts possess moderate amount of antioxidants and scavenged 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide free radicals. Mimosa pudica seed extracts also decreased fasting blood glucose level and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and increased serum insulin, serum α-amylase and hepatic antioxidants (catalase and reduced glutathione) levels in 21 days treated diabetic rats. The ethyl acetate extract fraction scavenged 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (65.41%) and nitric oxide (90.16%) radicals than the other extracts. The ethyl acetate extract fraction also exerted more antidiabetic activity and increased hepatic antioxidant levels than the other extracts and the untreated group. Conclusion: Mimosa pudica seeds exerted its antidiabetic effect by enhancing secretion of pancreatic insulin and α-amylase. Mimosa pudica seeds also possess antioxidant activity and therefore, can be employed in preventing hepatic damage associated with diabetes.
  Anil Kumar , G.N. Tiwari , Subodh Kumar and Mukesh Pandey
  The present study is concerned with the scope of greenhouse technology in agricultural engineering (cultivation, drying and space heating). The greenhouse can provide control environment for high value crops like medicinal plants, flowers etc. crops grown inside a greenhouse are healthy and give better results. The design of a greenhouse depends upon the latitude of the place and the requirement of crop. The main criteria for selection of greenhouse can be its value of solar fraction, which have been discussed in detail in the article. Depending upon the requirement of crops, different heating and cooling arrangements can be made in inside the greenhouse. Drying is a widely used practice in food preservation. Drying of crop/fruit/medicinal plants inside a greenhouse is also very useful technique for reducing postharvest losses, due to undesirable moisture contents. The study also highlights the application of greenhouse for drying under natural as well as forced mode.
  Anil Kumar and G.N. Tiwari
  Anil Kumar and Navin Rajpal
  In this study, we propose new technique that will address the problem of robustness and data safety in steganography. The steganography consists of techniques to allow the communication between two persons, hiding not only the contents but also the very existence of the communication in the eyes of any observer. T-Codes used with Turbo Codes generates cryptic and error-coded data stream, which is hidden in the stego-object using Pseudo-Random sequence. This technique makes our processed data stream non-vulnerable to the attack of an active intruder, or due to noise in the transmission link.
  Himanshu Aggarwal , Alka Rao , J.S. Rana , Jasbir Singh , Anil Kumar , Vinod Chhokar and Vikas Beniwal
  The present investigation was carried out to access the suitability and reliability of ISSR analysis for inferring genetic diversity among chickpea genotypes. A total of six ISSR markers were used to study genetic diversity among 115 genotypes of chickpea. Out of six ISSR markers (GTGC)4 (GTG)5 and (TCC)5 were found to generate reproducible DNA fragments of size ranging from 0.15-3, 0.40-2.5 and 0.35-2 kb and yielded 2-9, 3-10 and 4-11 number of fragments, respectively. Clustering analysis separated all the genotypes into five genetically similar groups. The value of cophenetic correlation coefficient (r) is 0.91 which is considered as a good fit. The genetic similarity coefficient among 115 chickpea genotypes ranged from 0.01 to 0.90. These values indicated high genetic variability among chickpea cultivars and can be used efficiently for gene tagging and genome mapping of crosses to introgress the favourable traits such as high yield potential, disease and insect resistance into the cultivated genotypes.
  Arvind Soni , Alka Niveden , Virendra Nath and Anil Kumar
  Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to determine the altitudinal variation within and between Plagiochasma appendicualtum collected from different altitude of Western Himalaya especially from Mussoorie region of India. Findings of UPGMA cluster analysis and band frequency of all the nine accessions were separated according to their altitudes supporting to their morphological differences as well. Gene flow and spore dispersal plays an important role in the polymorphism. Gene flow within P. appendiculatum growing on same altitude is very high as compared to accessions collected from different gradient of altitudes i.e., the genotypes collected from same altitude showing not so much polymorphism compared to different altitude. It has been concluded that the RAPD markers would be useful to characterize the altitudinal variation between different accessions of P. appendiculatum and may be also valuable to other bryophytes collected from various environmental condition.
  Anil Kumar , Thurl E. Harris , Susanna R. Keller , Kin M. Choi , Mark A. Magnuson and John C. Lawrence Jr.
  Rictor is an essential component of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 2 (mTORC2), a kinase complex that phosphorylates Akt at Ser473 upon activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). Since little is known about the role of either rictor or mTORC2 in PI-3 kinase-mediated physiological processes in adult animals, we generated muscle-specific rictor knockout mice. Muscle from male rictor knockout mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the mice showed glucose intolerance. In muscle lacking rictor, the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 was reduced dramatically in response to insulin. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the Akt substrate AS160 at Thr642 was reduced in rictor knockout muscle, indicating a defect in insulin signaling to stimulate glucose transport. However, the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 was normal and sufficient to mediate the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Basal glycogen synthase activity in muscle lacking rictor was increased to that of insulin-stimulated controls. Consistent with this, we observed a decrease in basal levels of phosphorylated glycogen synthase at a GSK-3/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-regulated site in rictor knockout muscle. This change in glycogen synthase phosphorylation was associated with an increase in the catalytic activity of glycogen-associated PP1 but not increased GSK-3 inactivation. Thus, rictor in muscle tissue contributes to glucose homeostasis by positively regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and negatively regulating basal glycogen synthase activity.
  Jaydeep Patil , Anil Kumar , Saroj Yadav and S.R. Goel
  Background and Objective: Root-knot nematode and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum is one of the most damaging pests in polyhouse crops under protected conditions. Effective fumigants are needed for controlling these destructive pathogens in under protected conditions. The experiment was conducted under polyhouse conditions to study the effect of soil fumigants on the population of root-knot nematode and disease incidence (%) of the fungus on cucumber. However, till date there is very less work have been done on this aspect. Materials and Methods: Autoclaved sterilized soil inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. Infested soil fumigated with formalin at 5, 10 and 30% and dazomet at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g kg–1 soil for the management of both the pathogens. Chemical checks with Bavistin at 2 g L–1 water and carbofuran at 1 mg a.i. kg–1 soil, as well as untreated check, were also maintained. Results: The results revealed that all the fumigants were significantly improved plant growth parameters and reduced galling, egg masses formation, final nematode population (PF), reproduction factor (RF) and disease incidence (%) as compared untreated inoculated check. Conclusion: In the present study, results clearly indicated that fumigants have wide range of the nematicidal activity for the reducing nematode as well disease incidence (%).
  Anil Kumar , J.A. Patil , Saroj Yadav and K.K. Verma
  Background and Objective: Root-knot nematode is a serious pest of vegetables in India as well as in the world. The experiment was conducted in sick plots to evaluate the efficacy of organic amendment and bio-agents against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in cluster bean. Materials and Methods: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Purpureocillium lilacinum, Neem cake, P. fluorescens+Neem cake and P. lilacinum+Neem cake were used for management. Chemical check (Carbofuran 3G 10 g m2) and the untreated check was also maintained. All the treatments were arranged according to RBD with three replications. Bio-pesticides were incorporated into the soil fifteen days before sowing. Results: Results revealed that highest yield and lowest nematode population were found in neem cake+P. fluorescens. Conclusion: Effects of organic amendments and bio-agents in combination significantly increase the yield of cluster bean and reduced nematode populations as compared to applied alone.
  Rita Maneju Sunday , Efere Martins Obuotor and Anil Kumar
  Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that is on the increase globally in recent years. Viburnum foetidum is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of Viburnum foetidum bark ethanolic extract (VFE) and ethanolic extract fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) were evaluated using both in vitro (RIN-5F and HepG2 cells) and in vivo (glucose loaded [10 g kg1] and streptozotocin [60 mg kg1] induced diabetic Wistar rats) models. Materials and Methods: In the in vivo studies, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg1 Viburnum foetidum bark ethanolic extract and 200 mg kg1 of each extract fractions were administered to streptozotocin (60 mg kg1) induced diabetic Wistar rats. Non toxic mass value of Viburnum foetidum extract was used in the in vitro (0.625, 1.25 and 2.5 μg/100 μL) and in vivo (100, 200 and 400 mg kg1) studies. Results: Viburnum foetidum extract and extract fractions increased RIN-5F insulin secretion and HepG2 glucose uptake when compared with untreated cells. Whereas, in 21 days treated diabetic rats, the extracts caused a decrease in fasting blood glucose level, increase in serum insulin and serum α-amylase level when compared with the untreated rats. The ethyl acetate extract fraction at 200 mg kg1 exerted a more increase in RIN-5F cells insulin secretion, HepG2 cells glucose uptake, serum insulin and serum α-amylase level than other extract fractions. Conclusion: Viburnum foetidum bark exerts its antidiabetic effect by enhancing insulin secretion by pancreatic cells, increasing glucose uptake by liver cells and enhancing the pancreas functionality thereby increasing serum insulin and serum α-amylase level.
  Rita Maneju Sunday , Efere Martins Obuotor and Anil Kumar
  Background and Objective: The Asparagus adscendens root is used in ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the antioxidant properties of Asparagus adscendens root ethanolic extract and extract fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) were investigated using in vitro models. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities were determined by 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid and total phenol content of the extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Results: The ethanolic extract and extract fractions exerted potent radical scavenging activities. Ethyl acetate extract fraction at 62.5 μg had the highest 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (77.87%), hydrogen peroxide (56.63%) and nitric oxide (56.28%) radical scavenging activity when compared with the ethanolic extract and other extract fractions. Flavonoids and phenols were also present in the ethanolic extract and extract fractions. The ethyl acetate extract fraction showed a higher total flavonoid content (29.9 mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract), total phenol content (47.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract) and total antioxidant capacity (35.9 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g of extract) when compared with the ethanolic extract and other extract fractions. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that Asparagus adscendens root ethyl acetate extract fraction have high antioxidant potentials and could be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of free radical induced diseases.
  Abul KALAM , Vishnu TRIPATH , Shekhar SRIVASTAVA , Yogesh PANDEY , Anil KUMAR , Alok GUPTA , Sharat SRIVASTAVA and Ankoor PUROHIT
  A novel series of complexes of the type [MLX2] where M= Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); X= C- or NO3- were synthesized by template condensation of hydrazine hydrate, acetaldehyde, 2,4-pentanedione, and thiocarbohydrazide in the presence of divalent metal salt in methanolic solution. The complexes were characterized with the help of elemental analysis, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, electronic, NMR, XPS, and infrared and far infrared spectral studies. Electronic spectra along with magnetic moments suggest 6-coordinated octahedral geometry for these complexes. The low value of molar conductance indicates them to be non-electrolytes.
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