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Articles by Andrea Lawless
Total Records ( 2 ) for Andrea Lawless
  Kevin C. Maki , Martyn R. Rubin , Les G. Wong , Jamie F. McManus , Christopher D. Jensen , John W. Marshall and Andrea Lawless
 

Background

Low vitamin D status has been associated with markers of cardiovascular disease risk.

Objective

This cross-sectional study assessed the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and selected markers for cardiovascular disease risk, including metabolic syndrome and its components, in adult men and women.

Methods

Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure were assessed in 257 men and women. Dietary intake was assessed with food frequency and dietary supplement questionnaires.

Results

Total vitamin D intake and that from dietary supplements were significantly associated with increasing serum 25(OH)D tertile (both P < .001). Mean±SEM serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in a graded fashion (P < .001) from the lowest (48.4±1.8 mg/dL) to the highest (62.3±2.1 mg/dL) 25(OH)D tertile. The relationship between 25(OH)D and HDL-C remained significant (P < .001) after adjustment for established determinants of the HDL-C, with each 10-ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D associated with a 4.2-mg/dL increase in HDL-C concentration. Serum triglycerides (P=.008), waist circumference (P < .001), and body mass index (P < .001) showed graded, inverse relationships with 25(OH)D tertile, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreased significantly from the lowest to the highest 25(OH)D tertile (31%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, P for trend=.001).

Conclusions

Lower serum 25(OH)D is associated with the metabolic syndrome and adverse values for some metabolic syndrome risk factors, particularly the HDL-C concentration. Research is warranted to assess whether increasing vitamin D intake will improve the metabolic cardiovascular risk factor profile.

  Kevin C. Maki , Dustie N. Butteiger , Tia M. Rains , Andrea Lawless , Matthew S. Reeves , Chuck Schasteen and Elaine S. Krul
 

Background

Soy protein (SP) and low-fat dairy product consumption have been suggested to have hypocholesterolemic effects, although the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood.

Objective

This randomized, controlled, parallel arm trial evaluated the effects of an insoluble fraction of SP and total milk proteins (TMPs) with high calcium content on the fasting lipid profile. It also assessed the potential contributions of increased excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols to their lipid-altering effects.

Methods

Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] 100−199 mg/dL) followed the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week lead-in with 3.75 g/d colesevelam HCl. Individuals with LDL-C lowering of ≥5.0% with colesevelam HCl were randomly assigned to one of two groups after a 3-week washout: 1) 25 g/d of an insoluble fraction of partially hydrolyzed SP or 2) 25 g/d TMP.

Results

Both SP and TMP reduced atherogenic lipoproteins, as indicated by changes in total cholesterol (−7.4% and −3.6%), LDL-C (−10.9% and −5.9%), nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−10.8% and −3.9%), and apolipoprotein B (−9.7% and −2.4%), respectively (P < .05 for between group differences except LDL-C, P = .085). No significant increases were observed in either group for fecal bile acids or neutral sterols.

Conclusion

These results confirm that SP consumption exerts a hypocholesterolemic effect and indicate that TMP elicits a less pronounced response. However, these findings do not support the hypothesis that increased bile acid excretion is an important contributor to the hypocholesterolemic effects of either protein source.

 
 
 
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