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Articles by Amit Alexander
Total Records ( 5 ) for Amit Alexander
  Sarita Agrawal , Tapan Kumar Giri , Dulal Krishna Tripathi , Ajazuddin and Amit Alexander
  Self micro-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) are vital tool for enhancement of oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. These systems are currently of interest to the researchers because of their significant capability to act as drug delivery vehicles by incorporating a extensive range of drug molecules. The present communication embodies approaches in the design of lipid based formulation, evaluation processes, mechanism involved there in, updated with latest findings from literature reports and patents. Also, this comprehensive review offers an explicit discussion on vital possibilities of the SMEDDS in bioavailability improvement of various drugs. A pseudo ternary phase diagram is used for identifying the micro-emulsification region. Thus, this current article provides an updated compilation of extensive information and result on all the unexplored areas of the self micro emulsifying drug delivery systems, thus encouraging the researchers to accelerate their research work in this direction for the development and enhancement of dissolution profile of hydrophobic drugs and pay a novel approach to pharmaceutical research.
  Ajay Behra , Tapan Kumar Giri , Dulal Krishna Tripathi , Ajazuddin and Amit Alexander
  As compared to both injectable and oral delivery, the buccal delivery is preferred to and advantageous for enhancement of bioavailability of drug. The mucosal surfaces are usually rich in blood supply and provide the means for rapid drug transport to the systemic circulation avoiding drug degradation in harsh gastric environment and first-pass hepatic metabolism. Besides, it can prolong absorption and residence time due to prolonged contact with absorption surface and with the site of application allowing once or twice daily dosing. A rapid onset of action with comfort and convenience in delivery of certain drugs has been observed. Many drugs have been tried with buccal route, a few are also available commercially. Clinical need should be significant and must be high enough to counterbalance the high cost associated with development of a buccal product. Buccal drug delivery assures four times the absorption rate from the skin. The review aims the development in the buccal adhesive drug delivery systems to provide basic principles to the young researchers which will be helpful in overcoming the difficulties associated with the formulation design.
  D.S. Rajput , Amit Alexander , Vishal Jain , T.K. Giri , D.K. Tripathi and Ajazuddin
  The oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs faces a major challenge because of the low aqueous solubility of such compounds. Approximately, 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility and present a major challenge to modern drug delivery system because of their low bioavailability. The availability of the drug for absorption can be enhanced by presentation of the drug as a solubilizer within a colloidal dispersion. Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS), which are isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents/surfactants, can be used for the design of formulations in order to improve the oral absorption of highly lipophilic drug compounds. The principal characteristic of these systems is their ability to form fine oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions or microemulsions upon mild agitation following dilution by an aqueous phase through the gastrointestinal tract for lipophilic drugs, which display dissolution rate-limited absorption. SEDDS may be a promising strategy to improve the rate and extent of oral absorption. This article gives an overview of the recent advances in the study of SEDDS and improvement of pharmacokinetic parameters of bioactives through SEDDS.
  Rakesh Tiwle , Ajazuddin , Tapan Kumar Giri , Dulal Krishna Tripathi , Vishal Jain and Amit Alexander
  The combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening increases the solubility of poorly water soluble compounds. The most challenging task in development of a formulation is the solubility of drug, availability at the site of action and stability of drug. Aqueous solubility of any therapeutically active substance is a key property as it governs dissolution, absorption and thus the in vivo efficacy. Among all newly discovered chemical entities about 40% drugs are lipophilic and these drugs are rejected by the pharmaceutical industry and will never benefit a patient because of its poor bioavailability due to low water solubility and/or cell membrane permeability. Drug efficacy can be severely limited by poor aqueous solubility and some drugs also show side effects due to their poor solubility. Therefore, drug release profiles are exhibited by such formulations for poorly soluble drugs to improve the solubility of such poorly soluble drugs. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of an aqueous solution at the site of absorption. Water is the solvent of choice for liquid pharmaceutical formulations. Most of drugs which are weakly acidic and basic show poor aqueous solubility hence various methods like, salt formation, co-solvency, micronization, addition of agent, solid dispersion, complexation etc., are some of the vital approaches routinely employed to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. This article reviews various methods used for improving the solubility of hydrophobic drugs and improve the drug release profiles which are exhibited by such formulations for poorly soluble drugs.
  Dixha Angare , Tapan Giri , Dulal Krishna Tripathi , Amit Alexander and Ajazuddin
  Most of the drugs are poorly water soluble or lipophilic in nature, that’s why we are facing the problem of poor solubility of drugs, it also affect the bioavailability of drugs. Lipid emulsion (LE) is one of the best methods to improve the solubility of lipophilic drugs. Since 1962 the improvement of lipid emulsions were observed as intralipid iodinated lipid emulsion, Physostigmine salicylate lipid emulsions Amphotericin B lipid emulsion, tcopherol lipid emulsions, Apomorphine, Lipid emulsion as antidote has been occurred. The lipid emulsions are potential carrier for poorly water soluble drugs. The components which are used in lipid emulsions are oils, emulsifiers, buffering agents, antioxidants, chelating agents and preservatives. Oils and emulsifiers play important role in lipid emulsions.
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