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Articles by Amit Kumar Verma
Total Records ( 33 ) for Amit Kumar Verma
  Deepti Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Mukesh Srivastava , Shanker Kumar Singh , Arvind Kumar Tripathi , Ashish Srivastava and Iftekhar Ahmed
  The early detection of the Canine Parvo Virus (CPV) is of paramount importance. The present study was aimed to know the molecular epidemiology of Canine parvo virus. Canine faecal samples from 100 dogs showing the clinical signs of gastroenteritis in and around Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India were collected and DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method. CPV vaccine strain was used as a positive control. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify VPI/VP2 gene using a set of 20-mer primers [pCPV-RT (Forward): 5’-CAT TGG GCT TAC CAC CAT TT-3’; (Reverse): 5’-CCA ACC TCA GCT GGT CTC AT-3’)] from position 3136-3155 to 3276-3295 of VP1/VP2 gene. A PCR product of approximately 160 bp was generated with positive faecal samples and CPV vaccine strain. After screening, 63 dogs were found positive for CPV but no sex variation was noticed amongst the CPV positive cases. Dogs, of the age group of ≤6 months were more susceptible in comparison to of >6 months and highest occurrence was noted in unvaccinated dogs and dogs in co-habitation with other dogs. Breed wise distribution of CPV in dogs revealed that the prevalence of CPV was the highest in Doberman (77.78%), followed by Spitz (78.57%), German shepherd (70.00%), Labrador (68.75%), Pomeranian (45.45%). It is concluded that CPV is prevalent in the Mathura and nearby area and it is more common in pups of age less than 6 months old and more prevalent in German shepherd, Labrador and Pomeranian breeds of dog.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal and Vinod Kumar
  Not Available.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Neha , Mani Saminathan , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease transmitted from animals to human and makes significant economic impacts due to high cost of eradication programs, trade restriction and serious consequences regarding public health thereby causing human tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of bTB which is an acid fast staining bacterium due to waxy substance (mycolic acid) present in its bacterial cell wall. The bacteria can be transmitted by both aerogenous and enterogenous routes. Disease causes development of miliary tubercular lesions, chronic cough, obstructions of air passages and alimentary tract or blood vessels and enlargement of lymph nodes. A spectrum of Cell-Mediated Immune responses (CMI) predominate infection, projecting the role of macrophages and T-cell populations. In advanced stage, there is increased humoral response. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) have been widely used for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical samples. Single intradermal test, short thermal test and Stormont tests are the valuable delayed type of hypersensitivity tests. Gamma interferon assay, lymphocyte proliferation assay, Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA), multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), Fluorescent Polarization Assay (FPA), immunochromatographic lateral flow test, single antigen as well as multiplex chemiluminescence assays are the various blood-based laboratory tests. Attenuated bovine-strain of tuberculosis bacterium, known as Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) is used as vaccine. The present review addresses important insights into the bovine TB, a complex and multi-species disease, the etiological agent, advances and trends in its diagnosis, vaccine development and treatment options and the public health significance of this important disease which would altogether help devising effective strategies for prevention and control of tuberculosis in cattle as well as in wildlife.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Vinod Kumar and Debashis Roy
  Recently, there are wide potential application of biotechnology in the field of animal production to increase the productivity of animals through better plane of nutrition, better production potential and improved health conditions. Nutrients like protein, aminoacids and fats can be produced or protected according the need at different physiological states of the animals. Enzymes can be used to improve the availability of nutrients from feed and to reduce the wastage of the feed and fodder. Prebiotics and probiotics or immune supplements can be useful to inhibit enteric pathogenic bacteria. Along with these use of plant biotechnology to produce feed and fodder with good nutritive values can be done with ease. Addition of vaccines or antibodies in feeds can be used to protect the animals from the disease. Genetic manipulation of rumen microbes can be done to improve the animal health. However, it is very difficult to accept the role of biotechnology in animal nutrition and it mainly depends on social and cultural aspects and economic importance to consumers and society.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Arvind Kumar Sharma and Anu Rahal
  Since last decade, there is increasing reports of presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing bacteria especially from enterobacteriacae family. The presence of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing E. coli causes a serious public health threat to human beings. The present study reports the isolation of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing α hemolytic Escherichia coli in Yellow-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus malabaricus) chicks. Escherichia coli organisms were isolated from three chicks suffering from unusual clinical signs and died before rehabilitation in the month of August 2010. Further assessment of isolates revealed their ability to bind with Congo red dye on Tryptic soy agar media and α hemolytic nature on 5% chicken blood agar. As usual when drug sensitivity was performed it revealed their multi drug resistance pattern which on further examination with double disk method showed them to be extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli. The presence of enterohemorrhagic extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in Yellow-wattled Lapwing is a matter of concern as it may be due to the transmission from human being as these Lapwings are residing in the close vicinity of university premises. Moreover, their nesting areas are also very near to the place where carcasses of dead animals were disposed off during that period of time. To the best or our knowledge, this appears to be the first report of pathogenic E. coli identified in Yellow-wattled Lapwing, implicating Yellow-wattled Lapwings as a new potential reservoir of these zoonotic pathogens.
  Neha , Waquar Ahmed , Amit Kumar Verma , Udit Jain and Basanti Bist
  Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of animals and man causing different reproductive problems like abortion, retention of placenta, repeat breeding, still birth and many more. In this report, authors described an investigation of brucellosis outbreak in an organized dairy farm, Agra, India causing abortions and other reproductive disorders. Blood and environmental samples including feed and water samples were collected in sterile containers. About 80% sera samples collected from aborted animals and 60% sera samples from pregnant and in-contact animals, maintained at the dairy farm contained antibodies against Brucella spp., while all the bulls were found negative for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies. Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp., isolates were recovered from water samples, while Staphylococcus, Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. could be isolated from feed samples. In the present investigation, high prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies was found in sera samples of the animals, indicates that they all had an exposure to Brucella spp. which might be the probable reason of abortion storm. Thus, on the basis of our findings, it can be deduced that Brucella might be associated with abortion in dairy animals even without apparent septicaemia or any other manifestations. The presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in sera samples of animals can be used as an indicator of infection in farm animals.
  Lalita Sharma , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahat , Neha and Rajesh Nigam
  The main objective of the present study was to report the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among bovines used for milk production in Mathura, India. A total of 80 milk samples were collected from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis from cows (40) and buffalos (40). Milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. aureus using standard bacteriological procedures. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from only 27 samples showing the overall incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical as well as sub clinical mastitis was 33.75%. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus was higher (50.00%) in clinical mastitis in comparison to that of subclinical mastitis (17.50%). The results revealed that the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical as well as sub-clinical mastitis was higher in cattle in comparison to buffaloes. Drug sensitivity revealed the 100% resistance against penicillins followed by vancomycin (88.89%), nalidixic acid (77.78%), cefixime, methicillin, novobiocin (66.67% each), amoxiclav, colistin, pipemidic acid (55.56% each), ofloxacin, streptomycin, sulphamethizole (44.44% each), ampicillin/sulbactam, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoperazone, enrofloxacin, floxidin, meropenem (33.33% each), cefuroxim, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline (22.22% each). Eighteen isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant, while the remaining (09) were methicillin-susceptible. Similarly, twenty four S. aureus isolates were intermediate to vancomycin while three were vancomycin susceptible and no isolate was resistant to vancomycin. Thus, the findings are useful for formulating specific control programs for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus in this region.
  Amit Kumar Jaiswal , Vikrant Sudan , Neha and Amit Kumar Verma
  Trypanosomiasis is a haemoprotozoan disease entity caused by various members of Trypanosoma spp. affecting different species of domestic and wild animals like horses, mule, donkey, camel, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goat, dogs, pig, elephant, deer, foxes, tiger and jackals with chief clinical signs of high intermittent fever, anaemia, loss of weight, edema of dependent parts, nervous symptoms, abortion and is responsible for major production losses. It can be transmitted through the biting flies wherein, the parasite may undergo biological or mechanical transmission. Various diagnostic methods from traditional to molecular are available for its diagnosis viz., microscopic examination, DNA detection by PCR, Card Agglutination Test and ELISA. The present review addresses important insights into trypanosomiasis, the etiological agent, advances and trends in its diagnosis, treatment aspects, prevention and control measures; which would help in limiting its prevalence in animals.
  Lalita Sharma , Amit Kumar Verma , Anu Rahal , Amit Kumar and Rajesh Nigam
  Background and Objective: Mastitis causes significant economic losses in dairy industry globally. The present study evaluated levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) along with enzymic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the serum samples, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in skimmedmilk of dairy animals (cows and buffaloes) showing sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis. Methodology: A total of 100 lactating animals were divided into two groups i.e., cattle and buffaloes, each group contain 50 animals. Each group is further divided into three subgroups healthy (10), sub-clinical mastitis (20) and clinical mastitis (20). Blood serum and defatted milk were used for enzyme activity estimations. Results: The LDH and ALP activities along with LPO levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SCM and CM the milk as compared to healthy milk from udders. Non significant differences were observed in BUN values. The mean activities of GPx were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in SCM and CM milk than in healthy milk. Increased lipid peroxidation in serum and milk indicated direct correlation between oxidative stress and tissue damage in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy animals. Conclusion: From the present study, it may be suggested that optimum antioxidant intake carry sufficient potential in affording protection against sub-clinical and clinical mastitis in the dairy animals.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Vinod Kumar and Anu Rahal
  Recently there is a rising interest in dairy biotechnology for altering the composition of milk by nutritional and genetic manipulations for the well being of human. These alterations are in milk fat, milk protein, lactose contents, humanization of bovine milk, adding therapeutic proteins etc. For acceptance of this designer milk we have to address certain ethical, legal and social aspects along with economic production of designer milk.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Rajib Deb and Kuldeep Dhama
  Earth is rich in variety of plant species including the beneficial one having some medicinal properties. The use of herbal medicines for the treatment of various diseases like hepatitis, arthritis, chronic heart diseases, skin disorders, wounds and even cancer have been mentioned in our ‘ayurveda’ and proved scientifically by many researchers of modern times. Now-a-days, fruits and vegetables are gaining popularity in medicine for treating mastitis, foot-and-mouth disease, skin allergies, hypersensitivity reaction, tympany, food poisoning, retention of placenta etc. These medicines are suitable for both the human as well as animals being cost economic and without side effects. Out of 21,000 medicinal plants listed by World Health organization, 2,500 species are found in India making India the largest potential producer of medicinal herbs. The plant or herbs particularly the fruits and vegetables are the cheapest and most common store of nutrients viz., carbohydrates, protein, vitamin, minerals and essential amino acids along with dietary fiber and thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and obesity. Apart from this, fruits and vegetables also supply additional vitamins and minerals to the diet and are important sources of phytochemicals that play important role as antioxidants, phytoestrogens and anti-inflammatory agents and through various protective mechanisms. Fruits and vegetables have the potential to develop nutritional ingredients and supplements, causing a change in the perception of horticultural crops and products and helps in anaerobic digestion. The present review discusses the role of fiber and health benefits of fruits and vegetables for humans and their companion animals.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Mani Saminathan , Neha , Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Glanders is a contagious and highly fatal zoonotic disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules as well as man leading to formation of nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. This is a notifiable disease under Glanders and Farcy Act, 1899. The disease is caused by Burkholderia mallei, a gram negative bacteria, non-spore forming, non-motile rod bacterium and is a facultative intracellular pathogen. The disease has been eradicated from many countries by testing and destruction diseased horses and restriction of import of animals. However, the disease is endemic in Africa, Asia, Mongolia, Middle East, Central and South America. In India, major glanders outbreaks were reported between 1976 to 1982 from different parts of the country. Later, sporadic cases were reported in 1988, 1990 and 1998. India was remained free of glanders for 8 years until recent re-emerging outbreaks started from 2006 to 2011. The occurrence of the disease leads to international trade restrictions. Glanders is primarily a disease of equines which causes chronic disease in horses and acute disease in donkeys and mules. Human is accidental host and the disease usually results from occupational exposure. Though the organism is susceptible to various antibiotics in vitro treatment is difficult and needs longer course with combination of antibiotics upon early diagnosis. It can be used as a biological weapon and has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a category B bio-threat agent and at present no vaccine is available for this bacterium either in humans or animals. This review describes this important disease covering its etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, public health significance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention and control strategies to be adapted to combat this deadly zoonotic pathogen.
  Anu Rahal , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Sanjay Kapoor , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  At present, almost every third person in the society is under stress and having chronic disorders like diabetes, arthritis, allergy, cardiovascular disease, fatigue and even cancer. Recently, there is decline in the physical and mental capabilities along with the social values. So this certainly should raise the alarms as to why such deterioration is taking place in the society or what are the changes in the lifestyle that might have a role direct/indirect in evolution of such changes? Vegetable is an immense store of active chemical compounds and considered as the cheapest and most easily available sources of carbohydrate, fiber, proteins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids. The intake of green and leafy vegetables lowers the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, anemia, cancer, oxidative stress, diabetes, weight gain etc. In recent time, vegetables have also been identified as safe and economic expression system for producing the recombinant proteins including the vaccines against many infectious diseases like hepatitis B, malaria, rotavirus, HIV, Helicobacter pylori, pestedes petits ruminants etc. However, besides the beneficial effect, contaminated and raw vegetables harbors pesticide residues and many pathogenic microbes viz., norovirus, Salmonella, E. coli, Shigella, Listeria monocytogens and also prove to be an excellent source of disease outbreaks. The present review highlights the phytonutrients and neutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables; their medicinal and health benefits for humans and their domestic as well as companion animals along with their fruitful practical applications and perspectives like bioreactor for producing vaccine along with the methods that can increase their nutritional benefits.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Shanker Kumar Singh , Anu Rahal , Iftekhar Ahmed , Deepti Singh , Aashish Pratap Singh and Lalit Singh
  Globally, Campylobacters have been reported as leading cause of gastroenteritis in man as well as animals and considered as emerging zoonotic problem particularly in developing countries including India. A cross-sectional study was conducted to know the prevalence and epidemiological determinants for Campylobacter spp. in dogs in and around Mathura city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Based on isolation, cultural and biochemical characterization of bacteria, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 34.24%. Younger dogs (less than 1 year of age) were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. High prevalence of Campylobacter spp. supports the hypothesis that dogs, particularly younger animals, may be an important source of Campylobacter infection for humans. Breed-wise prevalence showed that non-descript dogs (45.97%) were more likely to carry Campylobacter infections. Dogs showing clinical signs of gastroenteritis were showing higher prevalence (47.21%) in comparison to that of animals without gastro-intestinal disorders (15.04%). Out of 113 Campylobacter isolates of canine origin, two isolates were resistant to all the nineteen antibiotics used in the study, while all the isolates were resistant to Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Amoxycillin, Aztreonam, Lincomycin, Tetracyclin, Oxytetracyclin and Penicillin. A high rate of resistance was observed to Cefotaxim (97.35%), Peefloxacin (91.15%), Chloramphenicol (90.27%), Ofloxacin (84.07%), Ciprofloxacin (83.18%), Cefaclor (80.53%), Nitrofurazone (76.11%), Norfloxacin (74.33%), Gentamicin (42.48%), Amikacin (40.71%) and Enrofloxacin (36.28%). Our results indicate Amikacin and Gentamicin as drugs suitable for the treatment of campylobacteriosis in dogs.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar Verma , Sandip Chakraborty , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Since ancient era, herbal therapy remained as medicine’s backbone which is economic, safer and easily available to most of people in world. Among diverse herbal treasure, Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a highly esteemed tree with several beneficial properties and applications especially known for its incredible therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values for humankind. Neem is regarded as “free tree of India”, “wonder tree”, “Nature’s drug store”, Village dispensary”, “Divine tree”, “heal all”, “Materia medica” and “Panacea of all Diseases”. It is among highly exploited medicinal plant of Indian origin. It has been used in different medicinal systems: ayurveda, unani, homoeopathic medicine, therefore, considered as cynosure of modern medicine. All parts of the plant have some biological and medicinal properties hence valuable source of natural medicinal products. Compounds isolated from neem are broadly classified into two: (1) Isoprenoids (2) Non-isoprenoids. Isoprenoid compounds consists of diterpenoids, triterpenoids and steroids while while non-isoprenoids contains proteins and/or amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids etc. It is found beneficial in leprosy, gastro-intestinal problems, malaria, intestinal helminthiasis, tuberculosis, ringworms, skin disorders, boils, epilepsy, fever, respiratory distress, nausea, ulcers and in many other health related problems. This review gives a bird’s eye view particularly on history, classification, active principles, mechanism of action and potential uses of neem in safeguarding human and animal health along with the several commercial preparations available in the market.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal , Vinod Kumar and Debashis Roy
  Selenium is an essential trace element in the diets which is required for maintenance of health, growth and biochemical-physiological functions. The area covered in this review has been rapidly unfolding in recent years and has already acquired a vast spread. This study presents a concise introductory overview of the effect of organic and inorganic selenium on growth performance, carcass traits, daily egg production, egg quality, Se uptake in various tissues and plasma and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in animals.
  Shambhu Dayal Singh , Rajamani Barathidasan , Asok Kumar , Rajib Deb , Amit Kumar Verma and Kuldeep Dhama
  Marek’s Disease (MD), caused by Marek’s Disease Virus (MDV) is a highly contagious oncogenic and neuropathic disease of chickens responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry all around the world and characterized by development of CD4+T cell lymphomas as well as infiltration of nerves and visceral organs by lymphocytes. MD is one of the most common lymphoproliferative diseases of chickens which cause mononuclear cell infiltration in one or more of the following tissues: peripheral nerves, gonads, lymphoid organs, iris, muscle, skin and other visceral organs resulting into development of tumours in visceral organs, paralysis of legs, wings and neck, grey eye (iris) or irregular pupil, vision impairment, blindness, skin lesions and immunosuppression, all of which can be accompanied by non-specific signs such as anorexia, weight loss and poor performance. Today there are evolving highly pathogenic isolates of MDV around the world capable of overwhelming the protection from currently employed vaccines. Thus MD poses a big challenge to the welfare and wellbeing of the poultry with increased condemnation of carcass, loss of productivity and quality products, leading to huge economic losses. It is also an immunosuppressive disease and causes increased susceptibility to other infections. The present review discusses in brief about the Marek’s disease, its etiology, conventional and advance tools and techniques being used for its diagnosis, prevention and control strategies in poultry.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , K. Dhama , Rajib Deb , Anu Rahal , Mahima and Sandip Chakraborty
  Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, affects both humans and animals and is among the most common but neglected direct zoonotic disease in the world, particularly in untreated or undiagnosed animals as well as humans. Now, it has been considered as a re-emerging disease causing global health problem due to its increasing incidences in developing as well as developed nations. It is a multisystemic disease leading to death. Diagnostic tests of importance are Latex Agglutination Test (LAT), lateral flow and immunoglobulin M (IgM) based ELISA, PCR based assays, Multiple-microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Molecular tools like PCR-RFLP, real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, qPCR and immunocapture PCR have all been found useful for rapid and confirmatory detection and differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic leptospires. Inactivated/killed and attenuated vaccines are always attempted, since the beginning of vaccine and vaccination story, against all emerging pathogens with mixed success stories. The advanced tools and techniques like recombinant DNA technology, reverse genetics, DNA vaccination, molecular genetics and proteomics approaches are being explored for search of novel antigens, proteins and genes as potential candidates to discover safer, efficient and better vaccines for leptospirosis. The present review highlights the leptospirosis, susceptible population, disease transmission and epidemiology, treatment, trends and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and vaccination strategies in humans and animals with a view to combat this organism having public health significance.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Rajib Deb , K. Karthik , Sanjay Kapoor , Mahima , Ruchi Tiwari , Parmod Kumar Panwar and Sandip Chakraborty
  Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian / Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as ‘mixing bowl’ for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Mahima , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amit Kumar Verma , Rajib Deb , Ruchi Tiwari and Sanjay Kapoor
  Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Kuldeep Dhama , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Naveen Kumar , Pravin Kumar Singh , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay Vir Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Mahima , S. Chakraborty and Rajib Deb
  Johne’s disease or Paratuberculosis has emerged as major infectious disease of animals in general and domestic livestock in particular on global basis. There have been major initiatives in developed countries for the control of this incurable malady of animals and human beings alike (inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease). Disease has not received similar attention due to inherent complexities of disease, diagnosis and control, in resource poor counties around the world. However, the rich genetic diverstiy of the otherwise low productive animal population offers opportunity for the control of Johne’s disease and improve per animal productivity. Present review aims to gather and compile information available on genetics or resistance to Johne’s disease and its future exploitation by resource poor countries rich in animal diversity. This review will also help to create awareness and share knowledge and experience on prevalence and opportunities for control of Johne’s disease in the livestock population to boost per animal productivity among developing and poor countries of the world. Breeding of animals for disease resistance provides good, safe, effective and cheaper way of controlling Johne’s disease in animals, with especial reference to domestic livestock of developing and poor countries. Study will help to establish better understanding of the correlation between host cell factors and resistance to MAP infection which may have ultimately help in the control of Johne’s disease in future.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Rajesh Kumar
  Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.
  Mahima , Abhijeet M. Ingle , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Rajib Deb , S. Rajagunalan , Rajesh Rathore and Kuldeep Dhama
  There are ongoing trends of immunomodulation to combat a vast range of human and animal diseases including the incurable diseases like viral diseases, cancers, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions. Animate as well as non-animate factors, surrounding us are interacting with our immune system. A balanced diet should contain all essential components from energy to vitamin and trace minerals. Each of these constituent has a very special effect on the immune system starting from their development to active role in immunity therefore, the outcome of their deficiency often ends in disease. Edible items which we consume like various vegetables, spices, herbs, fruits etc., are also equally responsible in manipulation of our system either in positive or negative way. Water has biggest share in our body and acts as the main medium to support the activities of the different system of body without exception of immune system. Proper environmental temperature is essential to maintain body’s functions and experiments carried out regarding the effect of temperature suggest that extremes of the temperature are often cause immunosuppression directly by acting on the cells of immunity or indirectly through inducing stress and thereby increasing production of catecholamine which are potent anti-immune molecules. Various pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria cause immune suppression and immune potentiation, respectively. Proper exercise hold a prime position in the healthy life as it supports immunity and keeps disease away. The present review deals with all these immunomodulators having both positive and negative impact on the health status of an individual.
  Mahima , Krishna Veer Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Vinod Kumar , Shanker Kumar Singh and Debashis Roy
  The ‘Hariana’ breed of cattle has been proved to be highly adaptable to harsh climatic conditions and resistant to common diseases prevalent in India. In this study, the normal reference values of hematological and serum proteins and other blood biochemical parameters were determined in the heifers of Hariana breed maintained at Instructional livestock farm complex, DUVASU, Mathura, India. A total of twenty four animals were used in this study. Blood was taken aseptically from all the animals and transported to laboratory for hematological and biochemical analysis. The hematological parameters (Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume) and biochemical parameters (Total protein, total albumin, albumin globulin ratio, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorous, calcium phosphorous ratio, AST, ALT) values were statistically analyzed, mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as reference values. This study reported hematological and serum biochemical values which could serve as baseline information for comparison in conditions of nutrient deficiency, physiological and health status of Hariana cattle heifers in India.
  Anu Rahal , A. H. Ahmad , Amit Kumar , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Every time a drug is administered to the animal to treat an ailment, no matter whether it is acute or chronic manifestation, it usually goes together with some other prescription medicine, OTC (Over the counter) formulation, herbs or even food. All the xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and food components as well as the endogenous compound that are formed in the animal body as a routine phenomenon exert a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the different physiological and biochemical processes going in the body. These effects may alter the normal metabolism and/or drug transport or its efficacy drastically and thus expose the man and animals to the risk of a potentially dangerous interaction. The present review discusses these potential reactions and their mechanisms that help in navigating the hazardous combinations of drugs with other medicines, food, herbs, vitamins and minerals with confidence.
  Rajib Deb , Amit Kumar , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Umesh Singh and Sushil Kumar
  Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.
  Mahima , Anu Rahal , Atul Prakash , Amit Kumar Verma , Vinod Kumar and Debashish Roy
  Tinospora cordifolia also known as Giloy or Guduchi, is an indigenous climber plant indigenous to tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Its stem is used for treatment of fever, jaundice, emaciation, skin ailments, diabetes, anaemia and various infectious diseases. The study was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia. The proximate analyses were carried out using standard methods, while mineral elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, equipped with air acetylene flame. The proximate analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia showed that it contained moisture 34.39%, ether extract 0.912%, crude protein 7.74%, crude fibre 56.42%, total ash 7.96%, nitrogen free extract 26.97%, cellulose 23.02% and hemicellulose 3.70%. The mineral analysis of the stems showed that they contain the following essential minerals: Calcium (102.23 ppm), phosphorous (24.81 ppm), iron (26.058 ppm), copper (3.733 ppm), zinc (7.342 ppm) and manganese (12.242 ppm). The study revealed that Tinospora cordifolia stems to be a potential source of nutrition and minerals for man as well as animals.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Rajamani Barathidasan , Amit Kumar and Shambhu Dayal Singh
  Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.
  Rajib Deb , Sandip Chakraborty , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari and Kuldeep Dhama
  Nutrigenomics a novel era in genomics research is based on puzzling issue on how nutrition and genes re-interacts. Perusal of literature reveals that very few information are available in this field and especially when it is associated with puberty in cattle which is a multigenic trait of great economic importance. Thus it opens a new area of research interest. Various markers like-gonadotropin releasing hormone/GNRH (responsible for sexual differentiation and reproduction), interstitial growth regulating factor/IGF1 (having signal controlling reproduction function linked to somatic growth); circulating metabolic hormones viz., leptin apart from GnRH and IGF1 (having impact on testicular development in peripubertal bull) are proved to be associated with male puberty in cattle. Various minerals (copper, selenium, manganese, zinc, chromium, iron and molybdenum) and vitamins (Vit. A, D, E and C) are directly or indirectly linked to male puberty. But no research till today initiated how the nutrients effect on the transcriptome/proteome/ metabolome level of marker genes associated with male puberty in cattle. Application of nanotechnology to make food safer for promotion of good health has created much excitement and nanoparticles has been developed against infectious diseases (e.g., Campylobacteriosis) affecting puberty along with certain nanocarriers that can facilitate the uptake of essential nutrients associated with puberty. Much of nutrigenomics research is however in infancy and hence the present mini-review will allow building the concept among researchers and scientists to initiate research in this interesting area.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Arvind Kumar Sharma and Anu Rahal
  Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Subhash Malik , Manoj Kumar Gupta , Arvind Sharma and Anu Rahal
  E. coli, often highly pathogenic in neonatal and immuno-compromised patients, are usually supposed susceptible to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, however with the time and also due to the extensive use of chemotherapeutic agents irrespective of their susceptibility, have evolved drug resistant strains. Moreover, the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing enteric pathogens is a serious issue. In this context the present study was conducted to find out occurrence of extended spectrum Beta-lactamases producing alpha hemolytic Escherichia coli in neonates, of less than one month of age, suffering from diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected from various private hospitals in Mathura and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. With the help of hospital nursing staffs sterilized stool samples were collected and processed for isolation of E. coli. The double disk diffusion method was applied to assess the ESBL production. E. coli organisms were isolated from 39 kids out of 120 samples. The assessment of isolates revealed alpha hemolytic nature of 23 isolates on 5% sheep blood agar. As usual when drug sensitivity was performed that revealed their multi drug resistance pattern which on further examination with double disk method showed 17 of them to be extended spectrum β-lactamases producing E. coli. The presence of enterohemorrhagic extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in kids is a matter of concern and public health importance as it may be due to the transmission from hospital itself during the birth time or post birth admission period.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Sahzad , N.C. Prakash Reddy and A.N. Shende
  Respiratory and reproductive disorders in dairy animals due to various etiological agents have led to significant economic losses to dairy industry. These losses are due to abortions, metritis, retention of placenta, repeat breeding, death of animals, loss of production and trade restrictions etc. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) in dairy animals of western parts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Anti BHV-1 antibodies were measured using a commercial ELISA kit (SYANOVIR® IBR-Ab). Blood samples were collected from a total of 134 animals of different age, gender from 8 districts. Overall individual seroprevalence was 32.84%. The study revealed that BHV-1 is comparatively more widespread in cattle (46.51%) than buffalo (35.28%). Comparison of different sex groups of animals revealed that the higher numbers of infected animals were identified in male (48.00%) than female (29.35%). The seropositivity of IBR increased with age of animals. The highest prevalence of IBR (66.67%) was observed in animals aged more than 8 years. As vaccination against IBR is not practiced in the region and higher percent positivity (>20%) in all age group of animals indicated the natural circulation of BHV-1 virus in the population. Because of less awareness on the vaccination of animals against this virus, the disease may spread rapidly. The results of present study also indicate that strict monitoring and surveillance of IBR is need of today to protect the animals from infection and further spread.
  Anita , Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Manoj Kumar Gupta and Anu Rahal
  The present study was taken to understand the status of water resources in the holy city of Mathura, India. As it is a tourist place and pilgrims come from all around the world, there are more chances of spread of pathogens through them. The pathogens which are particularly excreted through urine and feces are most commonly excreted out. E. coli is one of them which causes many severe diseases particularly in neonatal calves or neonates of human. As the city has its limitation of accommodation and river Yamuna is also shrinking, the pressure of millions of pilgrims has enormous, drastic and stipulated effect on water resources particularly river Yamuna. The samples collected showed the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Out of total 100 samples 40 were found positive for E. coli. The 60 samples of different water resources showed the presence of E. coli in 26 samples while 14 were found positive out of 40 samples of Yamuna water. The total coliforms count ranged between 1.08 log10 CFU m L-1 to 6.34 log10 CFU m L-1 in drinking water sources and waste water, respectively. The high percentage of positive samples and coliforms count may be because of the method and place of sample collection. When these isolates were analyzed for antibiotic sensitivity pattern against some commonly used antibiotics. They showed a variable effectiveness against them. The number of resistant isolate is significant enough to make an alert at the earliest to protect the water resources and also to secure better and brighter future of human population.
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