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Articles by Amalraj Thangasamy
Total Records ( 2 ) for Amalraj Thangasamy
  Amalraj Thangasamy , Jessica Rogge and Sudhakar Ammanamanchi
  RON (recepteur d`origine nantais), a tyrosine kinase receptor for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) was implicated in tumor progression. However, it was not investigated how this important oncogene is regulated. We show that MSP promotes invasion of MDA MB 231 and MDA MB 468 but not MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western analysis indicated the expression of RON message and protein, respectively, in MDA MB 231 and MDA MB 468 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. RON expression correlated with Sp1 expression. Initial analysis of a 1.2-kb and 400-bp RON promoter in MDA MB 231 and MDA MB 468 cells suggested the presence of all the necessary regulatory elements within 400 bp from the transcription start site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the 400-bp RON promoter revealed that the overlapping Sp1 sites at–94 (Sp1-3/4) and Sp1 site at –113 (Sp1-5) are essential for RON gene transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that Sp1 binding to these sites is required for RON promoter activity. Ectopic Sp1 expression in Sp1 null SL2 cells confirmed the involvement of these Sp1 sites in the regulation of oncogenic RON tyrosine kinase. Treatment of MDA MB 231 cells with mithramycin A, an inhibitor of Sp1 binding, or siRNA knock-down of Sp1 blocked RON gene expression and MSP-mediated invasion of MDA MB 231 cells. This is the first report demonstrating a clear link between Sp1-dependent RON tyrosine kinase expression and invasion of breast carcinoma cells.
  Shujie Zhao , Sudhakar Ammanamanchi , Michael Brattain , Lin Cao , Amalraj Thangasamy , Jing Wang and James W. Freeman
  Transforming growth factorβ (TGF-β) signals through Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways. However, Smad signaling is altered by allelic deletion or intragenic mutation of the Smad4 gene in more than half of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. We show here that loss of Smad4-dependent signaling leads to aberrant expression of RON, a phosphotyrosine kinase receptor, and that signaling by RON cooperates with Smad4-independent TGF-β signaling to promote cell motility and invasion. Restoring Smad4 expression in a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line that is deficient in Smad4 repressed RON expression. Conversely, small interference RNA knock down of Smad4 or blocking TGF-β signaling with a TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor in Smad4-intact cell lines induced RON expression. TGF-β-induced motility and invasion were inhibited in cells that express Smad4 and that have low levels of RON compared with isogenically matched cells that were deficient in Smad4. Furthermore, knocking down RON expression in Smad4-deficient cells suppressed TGF-β-mediated motility and invasion. We further determined that Smad4-dependent signaling regulated RON expression at the transcriptional level by real-time reverse transcription PCR and RON promoter luciferase reporter assays. Functional inactivation by site-directed mutations of two Smad binding sites on the RON promoter inhibited TGF-β-mediated repression of RON promoter activity. These studies indicate that loss of Smad4 contributes to aberrant RON expression and that cross-talk of Smad4-independent TGF-β signaling and the RON pathway promotes an invasive phenotype.
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