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Articles by Altaf Hussain
Total Records ( 14 ) for Altaf Hussain
  Saghir Ahmad , Noor-ul-Islam Khan , Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal , Altaf Hussain and Mahmudul Hassan
  Salinity is a big threat to world agriculture. It imposes a major setback in increasing the yield of cotton. This crop is very sensitive to salinity at germination and seedling stage. Salt stress adversely affects the biomass production, i.e., decrease in leaf area, stem thickness, shoot and root weight and ultimately brings about decrease in seed cotton yield. A threshold salinity level at which initial yield of cotton declines is 7.7 dS m-1 with a 50% reduction in yield at 17.0 dS m-1. Reduction in fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire values, whereas an increase in ginning out-turn have been reported under saline conditions in both Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. High salinity level adverse affects photosynthesis. Research studies indicate decrease in nitrogen of leaf cotton with increasing salinity levels. Salinity increases Na+ and Cl¯ and decreases K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in leaves of cotton. Slight increase in K+ and modest accumulation of Na+ with increase in salinity have also been found in literature. K+/Na+ ratio has been used as a successful selection criterion for salt tolerance in some crops. Generally salt tolerance in cotton has been associated with Na+ exclusion. High salinity reduces N and P uptake in cotton, whereas low salinity does not have a significant effect on the absorption of either of the ions.
  F.A. Nehvi , Shafiq A. Wani , Altaf Hussain , M.I. Maqhdoomi , B.A. Allai , Wassem Yousuf , F.A. Bahar and Z.A. Dar
  Stability analysis was carried in twenty genotypes of fodder oats under four random environmental conditions of Kashmir valley. Observations were recorded on 10 maturity, morphological, quality, yield and yield related traits. Significant variation among genotypes was observed for all the traits indicating presence of high level of variability Significant GXE interaction was observed for all the traits. Partitioning of GXE interaction revealed that both the components were highly significant in all the characters with predominance of the Linear component, thereby, suggesting that the performance of genotypes across environments could be predicted with greater precission. Eleven genotypes showed average stability for green fodder yield of which nine genotypes (EC-3517, EC-35134, EC-13178, EC-1085898, EC-96848, EC-9865, EC-131532, Sabzaar and Kent) were well adopted and two genotypes (EC-54837 and EC-99170) were poorly adopted to all environments. Genotypes EC-35117, EC-35134, EC-13178, EC-1085898, EC-97248, EC-131532, Sabzaar and Kent were found to be stable and well adopted to all environments for most of the yield and yield related traits. These genotypes would be useful for commercial exploitation or can be exploited as elite gene pool in future breeding programme.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain , Muhammad Ashraf , Hans- Werner Koyro , B. Huchzermeyer , Muhammad Yousaf and Muhammad Saeed Akhtar
  An investigation was conducted in central region of Punjab, Pakistan to study the relationship of mineral (Na) in soil, plantand animal systems to enable prediction of sodium status of three different classes of goats and sheep grazing the pasture. From goat and sheep ranch soil, forage, feed, waterand animal samples (Blood plasma, milk, faecesand urine) were collected fortnightly during winter and summer seasons. At goat ranch it was found that seasons did not affect soil, forageand plasma Na+ concentrations. These samples were lower than the required range in relation to Na+ levels. The fecal, urineand milk Na+ losses were found to be responsible for low plasma Na+ status in different goat classes. At sheep ranch soil, feedand plasma, milk and urine sodium concentrations in lactating sheep were affected by seasonal changes. Forage sodium level during summer was at marginal deficient and during winter it was slightly deficient. In lactating sheep plasma had marginal deficient level of sodium in winter and moderate deficient level in summer. While in non lactating sheep plasma sodium was also moderately deficient in summer and marginal deficient in winter and in male sheep moderately deficient level of sodium in plasma was found in summer only. Fecal and urine loss of sodium in lactating and non lactating animals was lower during winter than those during summer. Milk loss of sodium was found to be higher in winter than that in summer. From these results it is concluded that Na+ status of goats and sheep in this specific region needs supplementation with mixture of salt containing Na+ to enhance the Na+ levels of grazing animals.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain , M. Ashraf , M.Y. Ashraf , Muhammad Yousaf , Muhammad Saeed Akhtar and Arshad Maqbool
  This article briefly describes common mineral imbalances affecting grazing ruminants at farms, their mineral requirements, factors affecting these requirements and different methods of detection of mineral status of the animal. The benefits and limitations of mineral analyses of soil, forage, animal tissues, and fluids samples for the purpose of identifying and preventing mineral disorders of grazing animals are discussed. The role of minerals as buffers, in immunity, as antioxidant and their bioavailability from various sources have also been described.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , M. Ashraf , M. Y. Ashraf , Z. Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  A study was conducted to determine the potassium status of lactating, non-lactating and male goats on farm located in Southern Punjab. A mineral supplement were available to all animals throughout the year. Soil, forage, water, feed and animal samples (blood plasma, milk, faeces, and urine) were taken 8 times fortnightly during winter and summer seasons. On the basis of results of analyses soil K+ was deficient for the requirements of plants during summer while forage K+ concentrations were below the critical values during both seasons. The contribution of feed K+ in maintaining the K+ level of animals was also not prominent. From plasma analyses it was found that K+ was below the normal levels in lactating and male goats during both seasons and in non-lactating goats only during summer. The loss of K+ through milk, faeces and urine was high during both seasons. Overall K+ status of these goats based on plasma concentrations may be considered inadequate mainly due to low forage K+ concentration which were found low to deficient. Key words: Potassium, status, goats, soil, forage, water, milk and plasma
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Muhammad Ashraf , Muhammad Yasin Ashraf , Zia-ur-Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  A study was carried out to evaluate the cobalt status of grazing goats on the basis of cobalt concentration in soil, dietary sources, plasma, milk, faeces, and urine as affected by seasons and animal class. It was found that only forage had seasonal variation with grater concentration in winter than that in summer. Soil and forage Co concentration were inadequate for the normal requirements for plants and animals during both seasons. Positive association was found between plasma Co levels and sources of Co consumed by animals. Higher plasma Co concentration was found in male goats as compared to that in other groups while fecal Co concentration was higher in lactating goats that that in other classes during both seasons. Although the Co concentrations in forage, the principal dietary factor were deficient, but the plasma Co levels in all classes of goats were sufficiently high showing the contribution of feed and water in complementing the forage Co required by animals for normal body function. The overall Co status of goats may be considered adequate mainly due to feed supplement, since forage Co concentration was low to deficient.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Muhammad Ashraf , Muhammad Yasin Ashraf , Zia-ur-Rahman and Altaf Hussain
  The study was conducted at the Livestock Experimental Station Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, southern Punjab, Pakistan, to determine the translocation of mineral nutrients from soil to plants and from plants to goats and sheep. Soil and forage samples were collected fortnightly from two sites of the same farm, during winter and summer of 2001. Feed and water samples were also collected along with soil and forage to study the effect of mineral supplement contained in feed. Samples of blood, milk, urine and faeces were obtained from 60 animals consisting of 30 sheep and 30 goats during the two seasons of the year, grouped into 3 classes with 20 animals per class of each animal type as follows: Class 1 contained 10 lactating sheep or goats, class 2 comprised of 10 non-lactating sheep or goats and, class 3 consisted of 10 male sheep or goats. All the soil, forage, feed, water and animal samples were analysed for 10 minerals like Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Se2+. In the site having sheep population all the soil minerals except Co2+ and Se2+ were found to be above the critical levels and considered adequate for normal plant growth during both seasons, while Co2+ and Se2+ in the soil were deficient during both seasons. Forage Na+ and Zn2+ in summer were at marginal deficient levels and in winter only Na was slightly deficient. Feed Ca2+ levels were marginally deficient during both seasons for normal requirements of sheep. Soil samples taken from the pasture grazed by goats had marginal deficient levels of soil K+ in the summer season, moderate soil Na+ during winter and marginal deficient during summer and sever deficient levels of Co2+ and Se2+ during both seasons of the year. While forage contained severe deficient level of K+, moderate deficient level of Na+ and marginal deficient level of Co2+ during winter and marginal deficient Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+ and Se2+, moderate deficient level of Fe2+ and severe deficient levels of K+, Na+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ during summer season. Feed Ca2+ concentrations were moderately deficient during both seasons. The effects of feed supplement at both ranches in raising the plasma mineral level was different in different groups of animals in different seasons. The moderate deficient level of plasma minerals like Ca2+ and Na+, marginal deficient levels of K+ and Mg2+ during winter and summer and to that of Cu2+ during summer in lactating goats, while in non-lactating goats in plasma, moderate levels of Ca2+ and Na+ and marginal deficient levels of plasma K+ and Mg during both seasons were found. Plasma of male goats contained marginal deficient levels of Ca2+ during winter, K+ during both seasons and Mg2+ during summer, while moderate deficient levels of Ca2+ were found in summer and Na+ during both seasons of the year. In lactating sheep plasma had marginal deficient levels of Ca2+ in summer K+ and Na+ in winter, Mg2+ in both seasons and moderate deficient levels of Ca2+ in winter and K+ and Na+ in summer season, while in non-lactating sheep plasma Ca2+ was in moderate deficient level in winter and Na+ in summer. In addition, marginal levels of Ca2+ during summer and those of Na+ during winter and of K+ and Mg2+ during both seasons were observed. In male sheep plasma K+ and Mg2+ in both seasons. Ca2+ in summer and Na+ in winter were marginal deficient minerals while Ca2+ in winter and Na+ in summer were in moderate deficient levels. However, the supplementation of feed containing minerals seemed to be contributed much to the well being of the animals particularly with no micro mineral in plasma overwhelmingly deficient. No toxic accumulation of any mineral was found in forage or feed during this study. Based on mineral status of the animals, Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cu2+ were deficient in plasma which may be a factor for limiting livestock production in this specified region of Pakistan. Supplementation with fortified mixtures containing these elements in appropriate proportion with high bioavailability would seem adequate in these regions during both seasons of the year to increase the productivity of goats and sheep at that farm. Studies should be carried out to determine the need and economic benefits of mineral supplementation.
  Saghir Ahmad , Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal , Altaf Hussain , Muhammad Attique Sadiq and Abdul Jabbar
  Mode of gene action and heritability were estimated for ginning out-turn, staple length, fibre maturity, fibre fineness, fibre strength and yield of cotton. Six genotypes B-557, Culture 728-4, MNH156, B-1850 (ne), Culture-604-4 and MNH147 were crossed in all possible combinations in diallel fashion. The results from scaling tests for the adequacy of additive-dominance model indicated that ginning out-turn, fibre fineness and fibre strength were found full adequate, whereas staple length, fibre maturity and seed cotton yield were partially adequate for further genetic analysis. Ginning out-turn, fibre fineness, fibre strength and yield were controlled by additive genes, whereas over-dominance was prevalent in staple length and fibre maturity. High narrow sense heritability for ginning out-turn and fibre strength suggested that these parameters could effectively be improved through selection in the early segregating generations, whereas chances of improvement for fibre fineness and seed cotton yield would be moderate as heritability estimates for these parameters were medium (h2 NS = 0.608 and 0.702%, respectively but poor for staple length.
  Saghir Ahmad , Noor-ul-Islam Khan , Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Attique Sadiq and Altaf Hussain
  Three salt tolerant cultivars/lines (B-557, Culture-728-4 and MNH-156) and three salt sensitive cultivars/lines (B-1580 (ne), Culture-604-4 and MNH-147) were grown in salinized soil under greenhouse conditions. Four treatments of NaCl, i.e., 16 (control), 70, 140, 210 mol m-3 were applied after 10 days of initial growth, and experiment continued till maturity. Determination of ions at seedling stage showed that the salt tolerant and the salt sensitive cultivars did not differ significantly in accumulation of leaf. The salt sensitive cultivars had more concentration of Cl- in leaves than those of the salt tolerant lines at the highest salt level. The salt tolerant cultivars had generally higher concentrations of K+, Ca2+ and K/Na ratios in the leaves than those of salt sensitive lines at the highest NaCl concentration (210 mol m-3). Ginning out-turn and fibre fineness increased with the increasing concentrations of salt, whereas staple length, fibre maturity and fibre strength showed decreasing trend at higher salt concentrations (140 and 210 mol m-3). The salt tolerant cultivars/lines had lower ginning out-turn, but better fibre fineness, higher staple length, fibre maturity and fibre strength compared with those of the salt sensitive cultivars. The salt tolerance in cotton is thus associated with higher uptake of K+, Ca2+, low accumulation of Cl-in the leaves and low ginning out-turn but higher staple length, fibre maturity and fibre strength.
  Altaf Hussain , Zafar Iqbal Khan and Dr. Ejaz Rasul
  Eleven fungal species namely Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium spp. Alternaria alternata, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifers, Fusarium moniliforme and Cephalosporiopsis sp. were isolated. Out of these species, first 7 were amylolytic and last 4 were pectinolytic. These species were employed for the production of amylases and pectinases respectively. Among the amylolytic species the glucoamylase activity (IU/ml) in surface cultures was found in the order; 17.4 ,15.20,14.0,9.6,5.0,4.50, and 4.00 for A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, Penicillium sp., F. pallidoroseum, F. oxysporum and Alternaria alternata respectively and glucoamylase activity in submerged cultures was found for the same fungal strains in the order; 10.00, 9.00, 6.80, 6.20, 5.0, 3.88 and 3.50 units/ml respectively. Among the pectinolytic fungi the pectinase activity was found only in the surface culture in the order; 15.30,12.00,10.20, and 8.00 units/ml for Rhizopus stolonifers, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium moniliforme and Cephalosporiopsis sp. respectively.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain and Muhammad Sadiq
  Different Media were optimized for plant regeneration from callus initiated from mature embryos of Indica rice on media with various levels of 2,4-D alone and in combination with various concentrations of Benzyle adenine. Plant regeneration was achieved in both MS and N6 media with and without various levels of growth regulators. In addition to green plants, production of albino plants was also observed in all the media tested for regeneration. The composition of each Callus induction and regeneration media was found to be responsible for the recovery of higher number of plants.
  Zafar Iqbal , Altaf Hussain , Muhammad R. Asi and Jamil A. Chaudhry
  Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of pesticide applications on soil nitrification dynamics in cotton agroecosystem. The pesticides either alone or in combination (mixture) were applied according to the normal agricultural application rates in test, farmer (with pesticide applications) and control (without pesticide applications) fields. Soil samples were collected before and after two days, following pesticide applications and at sowing, before pesticide application, after all pesticide applications, at harvest and at post harvest time during the crop seasons 1997-1999. Soils were incubated under laboratory conditions using ammonium sulfate as substrate. In 1997 crop season soil samples were incubated for 28 days with a substrate of 144 mgkg -1 soil while in 1998-1999 the incubation period was 14 days with substrate of 212 mgkg -1 soil. The soil samples were analyzed for total (NO2 + NO3) N content using steam-distillation method. Othofonprox, profenophos + cypermethrin and bifenthrin + endosulfan inhibited while, endosulfan, imidachloprid, methamidophos, endosulfan alongwith dimethoate, profenophos + alphmethrin, chlorpyrifos + tralomethrin + acetamiprid and cyhalothrin + profenophos + diafenthiuron stimulated the nitrification. All other pesticidal applications have no effect on this parameter. Samples collected at different intervals of time from all the fields in three years study showed no differences in nitrification from sowing to harvest. The variations observed, in general, being very week and transient and resulting in a recovery of nitrification.
  Zafar Iqbal , Rashid Ahmad and Altaf Hussain
  The Direct Thermal Analysis (DTA) chromatograms of different rice varieties/mutant revealed 17 components for Basmati-370, Basrnati-198, Kashmir Basmati and DM-25 and 16 components for NIAB-IRRI-9 on SE-30 packed column. The genetic relationship between Basmati -198, Kashmir Basmati and DM-25 and their parent Basmati-370 appeared to be reflected in the composition of their volatiles. A peak of rice aroma, found at retention time 10.84 min. in Basmati-370, Basmati-198, Kashmir Basmati and DM-25 (aromatic varieties/mutant) was absent in NIAB-IRRI-9 (nonaromatic variety) which was supposed by sensory evaluation of the column effluent.
  Zafar Iqbal Khan , Altaf Hussain and Muhammad Sadiq
  Methods were developed to optimize the media for callus induction from mature embryos of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) CV. DM-25. Callusing from seeds of rice was observed with various levels of 2,4-d alone and in combination with different concentratiom of benzyl adenine. With the gradual increase of 2,4-d concentration in callus induction medium, there was gradual increase in callusing frequency.
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