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Articles by Alfred Maroyi
Total Records ( 8 ) for Alfred Maroyi
  Oluwagbenga Oluwasola Adeogun , Alfred Maroyi and Anthony Jide Afolayan
  Background and Objective: The consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended for humans to increase immunity and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. High moisture content and minimal processing of fruits and vegetables with high demand by consumers bring to fore the need for preservation. This study was carried out to ascertain the preservation potential of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum (O. gratissimum) on fresh cut Cucumis sativus (C. sativus). Materials and Methods: Ocimum gratissimum leaves were collected and extracted with different solvents: Ethanol and hexane. The extracts were used to determine the quality of fresh cut C. sativus stored for 9 days using dipping method. The following quality parameters were assessed: Carotenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenolic acid, pH, total soluble solids, turbidity, microbial loads and moisture contents. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of the extracts were determined and essential oil constituents were established with the aid of GC-MS. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis using SPSS analysis (Version 20.0). Results: Cucumis sativus treated with O. gratissimum extracts had lower moisture content, pH and brix values of the total soluble solids than untreated C. sativus. The ascorbic acid, phenolic and carotenoids contents of C. sativus treated with O. gratissimum extracts had lower values than untreated C. sativus. The total load of microbes in C. sativus treated with O. gratissimum extracts was lower than untreated C. sativus. Flavonoid, alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, phenol, tannin, steroid, anthraquinone and saponin were present in O. gratissimum leaves. The essential oils isolated from O. gratissimum included γ-terpinene, caryophyllene, oleic acid and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. Conclusion: This study established that the leaf extracts of O. gratissimum have bio-preservation potential that can be used to enhance the shelf of C. sativus.
  Pelisa Ngcaba and Alfred Maroyi
  Background and Objective: Assessment of vegetation in catchment areas need to be assessed and understood in terms of plant diversity, ecological processes and functions that support appropriate ecosystem goods and services. The aim of this study was to assess plant species composition and diversity within the Tsitsa river catchment area in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Materials and Methods: Nineteen square plots measuring 5×5 m were established in Tsitsa river catchment area. Within each plot, environmental data and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. Vegetation and environmental data were analyzed using palaeontological statistics (PAST) version 3.06. Results: In total of 78 plant species were recorded belonging to 24 families and 57 genera. Among the documented species, 11.5% are exotic to South Africa. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Asteraceae with 15 species, followed by Poaceae with 14 species, Cyperaceae (10 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Lobeliaceae (3 species), Acanthaceae, Asphodelaceae, Lamiaceae, Oxalidaceae, Polygalaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Verbenaceae and Vitaceae (2 species each). Six main floristic clusters were identified from the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). Results from canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that species composition was mainly influenced by calcium, carbon, erosion, magnesium, potassium and the slope of the landscape. Conclusion: The diverse species diversity and composition documented is due to several environmental factors particularly calcium, carbon, erosion, magnesium, potassium and the slope of the landscape.
  Sebua Silas Semenya and Alfred Maroyi
  Background and Objective: Establishment of therapeutic plant specimen supplies used in the traditional healing sector is a crucial step towards conservation of medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The aim of the study was to evaluate sources of plants used by Bapedi traditional healers (THs) as remedies for respiratory infections (RIs) and related symptoms (RLs) in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Materials and Methods: For data collection, it employed a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field observations with 240 Bapedi THs practicing in the Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts of the Limpopo province, South Africa. Results: A total of 224 species (83%, n = 186 indigenous and 16.9%, n = 38 exotics) belonging to 177 genera and 85 botanical families were documented. This species was obtained by THs from free access communal lands, home gardens and informal herbal medicine shops (muthi shops), for use against RIs and RSs. Amongst these sources, communal lands (68.3%, n=153), particularly bushvelds and grasslands were the major supplies of native plant species (98.6%, n=151). Conclusion: Conservation strategies of the recorded medicinal plants distributed in the communal lands are required.
  Zingisa Thinyane and Alfred Maroyi
  Background and Objective: Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are renewable natural resources which are harvested by local communities from the surrounding homesteads, fields, grazing lands, woodlands, grasslands and natural habitats. The aim of this study was to examine the use of NTFPs in Alfred Nzo District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province in South Africa, assessing their consumption patterns and contribution to the household well-being. Materials and Methods: Data on NTFPs identities and utilization in the study area were gathered through community focus group discussions and household surveys using both structured and semi-structured questionnaires between April, 2017 and May, 2018. A sample of 124 participants selected via snowball-sampling technique provided detailed accounts on diversity and utilization of NTFPs in the study area. Results: A total of 59 species and eight extractable NTFPs were utilized by the communities in Alfred Nzo District Municipality. The identified eight use categories were herbal medicines (39.0%), edible plants and mushroom (18.0%), firewood (11%), bushmeat (10.0%), forage (9.0%), construction materials (6.0%), ceremonial uses (2.0%) and others with miscellaneous uses (5.0%). Popular NTFPs with Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) values exceeding 0.50 included Agapanthus africanus, Aepyceros melampus, Bulbine frutescens, Bulbine latifolia, Centella asiatica, Clivia miniata, Datura stramonium, Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Leonotis leonurus, Pavo cristatus, Struthio camelus and Xerus inauris. Conclusion: In this study, it was concluded that information on diversity, consumption patterns and contribution of NTFPs to livelihood needs of households may enable policymakers and government officers to draft policies required for sustainable utilization and management of NTFPs.
  Sebua Silas Semenya , Alfred Maroyi and Peter Masoko
  Background and Objective: Respiratory infections (RIs) and related symptoms (RSs) are commonly treated by traditional healers (THs) using herbal remedies in the traditional primary health care sectors. The aim of this study was therefore, to evaluate the therapeutic value of most used plant species namely Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare and Lasiosiphon caffer by Bapedi THs for these conditions. Materials and Methods: Qualitative phytochemical constitutes of the crude materials from the above-stated species were determined using the standard methods. The antioxidant activities of acetone, dichloromethane, hexane, methanol and water crude extracts were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Antibacterial activities of these extracts was assessed using microdilution (minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and bioautography assays). Results: The phytochemical screening of C. ternatum, C. transvaalensis, E. axillare and L. caffer crude extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannin, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenes. All plants including those that did not display any antioxidant activities using qualitative DPPH assay showed a certain level of scavenging activities when quantified, with the mentioned extracts from E. axillare (water and hexane), L. caffer (water and acetone) and C. ternatum (acetone) showing excellent activities almost comparable to a standard antioxidant drug (ascorbic acid). Plant extracts from all used solvents were able to completely exterminate Mycobacterium smegmatis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with MBC values between 0.019 and 2.5 mg mL1 depending on the plant. Some of plant extracts were able to impede the growth of these bacteria with MIC values ranged between 0.63-2.5 mg mL1. Conclusion: Findings of the present study provide support for the use of C. ternatum, C. transvaalensis, E. axillare and L. caffer as medication for RIs and RSs by Bapedi THs. Studies focusing on isolation, identification and characterization of the pure compounds responsible for antibacterial activities of plants are in progress.
  Alfred Maroyi
  Background and Objective: Medicinal plants are important for primary healthcare needs of both rural and urban communities in Zimbabwe and among these are exotic plants. The aim of this study was to document exotic plants used as herbal medicines in Shurugwi District in South-central Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured interviews, personal observations and guided field walks were conducted between December, 2014 and January, 2015 with 128 community members and traditional healers from seven villages to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of exotic plants as herbal medicines. Data collected included names of exotic plants used, plant parts used, methods of herbal preparation and administration. Statistical Package for the Social Scientists (SPSS) was used to analyze collected data. Results: Total 26 exotic plants belonging to 15 families and 23 genera, mostly from Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae (15.4% each), Asteraceae (11.5%), Apocynaceae and Myrtaceae (7.7% each) were used to traditionally manage 21 human and 4 animal diseases and ailments. The majority of the plant species used (69.2%) had one or two therapeutic uses. Plant species with at least three therapeutic uses were Bidens pilosa, Citrus lemon, Datura stramonium, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Nicotiana tabacum, Psidium guajava and Schkuhria pinnata. Conclusion: This study revealed that exotic plant species play an important role in provision of primary health care to local communities in South-central Zimbabwe.
  Alfred Maroyi
  Azanza garckeana is an important food plant and herbal medicine in tropical Africa. This study was aimed at reviewing the nutritional value, the phytochemical compounds, ethnomedicinal uses and validated pharmacological properties of A. garckeana. The extensive literature survey revealed that ripe fruit carpels of A. garckeana are edible and widely used as food additives throughout the distributional range of the species. Azanza garckeana is also traditionally used to treat or manage at least 22 human diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as chest pains, cough, infertility, liver problems, menstruation problems and sexually transmitted infections. Multiple classes of compounds including alkaloids, amino acids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, cyanogenic glucosides, flavonoids, lipids, phenols, saponins and tannins have been isolated from A. garckeana. Pharmacological studies on A. garckeana indicate that the species has a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antihyperglycemic, antimalarial, antioxidant and iron absorption. Azanza garckeana is worth to be subjected to detailed scientific investigations for elucidating its chemical, nutritional and toxicological properties. Such detailed research should also include experimental animal studies, randomized clinical trials and target-organ toxicity studies involving A. garckeana and its derivatives.
  Alfred Maroyi
  Croton megalocarpus (C. megalocarpus) is widely used as herbal medicine by the local people in tropical Africa. The potential of C. megalocarpus as traditional medicine, the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of its parts used as traditional medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. megalocarpus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 41 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as colds, cough, respiratory diseases, fever and malaria, gastro-intestinal tract diseases, wounds, intestinal worms and as ethnoveterinary medicine. Multiple classes of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, clerodane diterpenoids, fatty acids, flavones, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, reducing sugars, saponins, sterols, tannins and triterpenoids have been isolated from the species. Scientific studies on C. megalocarpus indicate that it has a wide range of pharmacological activities which include antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, molluscicidal, wound healing and Epstein-Barr virus-activating potency.
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