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Articles by Alessandro Sette
Total Records ( 2 ) for Alessandro Sette
  Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi Benhnia , Megan M. McCausland , Hua- Poo Su , Kavita Singh , Julia Hoffmann , D. Huw Davies , Philip L. Felgner , Steven Head , Alessandro Sette , David N. Garboczi and Shane Crotty
  The smallpox vaccine is widely considered the gold standard for human vaccines, yet the key antibody targets in humans remain unclear. We endeavored to identify a stereotypic, dominant, mature virion (MV) neutralizing antibody target in humans which could be used as a diagnostic serological marker of protective humoral immunity induced by the smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus [VACV]). We have instead found that diversity is a defining characteristic of the human antibody response to the smallpox vaccine. We show that H3 is the most immunodominant VACV neutralizing antibody target, as determined by correlation analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) specificities to MV neutralizing antibody titers. It was determined that purified human anti-H3 IgG is sufficient for neutralization of VACV; however, depletion or blockade of anti-H3 antibodies revealed no significant reduction in neutralization activity, showing anti-H3 IgG is not required in vaccinated humans (or mice) for neutralization of MV. Comparable results were obtained for human (and mouse) anti-L1 IgG and even for anti-H3 and anti-L1 IgG in combination. In addition to H3 and L1, human antibody responses to D8, A27, D13, and A14 exhibited statistically significant correlations with virus neutralization. Altogether, these data indicate the smallpox vaccine succeeds in generating strong neutralizing antibody responses not by eliciting a stereotypic response to a single key antigen but instead by driving development of neutralizing antibodies to multiple viral proteins, resulting in a "safety net" of highly redundant neutralizing antibody responses, the specificities of which can vary from individual to individual. We propose that this is a fundamental attribute of the smallpox vaccine.
  Erika Assarsson , Huynh -Hoa Bui , John Sidney , Qing Zhang , Jean Glenn , Carla Oseroff , Innocent N. Mbawuike , Jeff Alexander , Mark J. Newman , Howard Grey and Alessandro Sette
  Continuing antigenic drift allows influenza viruses to escape antibody-mediated recognition, and as a consequence, the vaccine currently in use needs to be altered annually. Highly conserved epitopes recognized by effector T cells may represent an alternative approach for the generation of a more universal influenza virus vaccine. Relatively few highly conserved epitopes are currently known in humans, and relatively few epitopes have been identified from proteins other than hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein. This prompted us to perform a study aimed at identifying a set of human T-cell epitopes that would provide broad coverage against different virus strains and subtypes. To provide coverage across different ethnicities, seven different HLA supertypes were considered. More than 4,000 peptides were selected from a panel of 23 influenza A virus strains based on predicted high-affinity binding to HLA class I or class II and high conservancy levels. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 44 healthy human blood donors were tested for reactivity against HLA-matched peptides by using gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Interestingly, we found that PB1 was the major target for both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The 54 nonredundant epitopes (38 class I and 16 class II) identified herein provided high coverage among different ethnicities, were conserved in the majority of the strains analyzed, and were consistently recognized in multiple individuals. These results enable further functional studies of T-cell responses during influenza virus infection and provide a potential base for the development of a universal influenza vaccine.
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