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Articles by Alam Khan
Total Records ( 11 ) for Alam Khan
  Alam Khan , Shahmim Akhter , Muhammad Mohsin Siddiqui , M. Muzaffar Ali Khan and Gul Nawab
  Effect of age, sex and seasons on the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in 25237 thyroid patients who were referred to the radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar during 1984-1990 (except 1987) and 1995-1996. T3 and T4 of all of these patients were determined by RIA and TSH was determined by immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA). The difference in mean concentration of T3, T4 and TSH in infants and children was non-significant at p<0.05. Comparing all age groups together, higher mean concentration of T3 was found in old age group followed by infants, adults and children. Similarly, the mean concentration of T4 was higher in old age group followed by adults, infants and children. While higher mean values for TSH were observed in infants followed by children, adult and old age group. The infants and children were having significantly higher values of TSH than the old age group and adults at p< 0.05. Concentration of T3 and T4 was significantly higher (p<0.05) in females than males, while TSH concentration was not significantly different (P>0.05) in both sexes. Mean concentration of T3 in summer and autumn was significantly higher than the other seasons and mean concentration of T4 in winter and summer was higher. The mean concentration of TSH in spring and autumn was significantly higher than the mean concentration of TSH in winter and summer at p<0.05.
  Alam Khan , M. Muzaffar Ali Khan and Shamim Akhtar
  The major disorders (problems) of thyroid gland are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, which have been reported in over 110 countries of the world with 1.6 billion people at risk and need some form of iodine supplementation. Usually hyperthyroidism is termed as thyrotoxicosis, but all hyperthyroidism may not represent thyrotoxicosis. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are due to over and under secretion of thyroid hormones. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism are diffused hyperplasia of the thyroid associated with Graves` disease, the ingestion of excess exogenous thyroid hormones, hyper functional multi nodular goiter and hyper function adenoma of thyroid. Less common causes of hyperthyroidism included certain forms of thyroiditis, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma and the secretion of excessive amount of thyroid hormones by ectopic thyroid arising in ovarian tetramas. Hypothyroidism usually develops from iodine deficiency. However, in rare cases, it can also be a developed from chronic lymphocytic the thyroiditis, also known as Hashimoto`s disease and from decreased TSH level. Iodine plays an important role in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism as iodine is an integral part of thyroid hormones. Availability of iodine to thyroid gland is mainly from foods and water and if these sources are deficient in iodine, then problems like hypothyroidism, cretinism and other iodine deficiency disorders can develop. Similarly, excessive iodine intake in the form of iodized oil, bread and salt can produce hyperthyroidism like iodine induced thyrotoxicosis. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism/ thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism vary in different countries. In Pakistan, the prevalence of hyperthyroidism and sub clinical hyperthyroidism was 5.1 and 5.8%, respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of hypothyroidism and sub clinical hypothyroidism was 4.1 and 5.4%, respectively. Prevalence of hyperthyroidism and sub clinical hyperthyroidism was higher in females than males. Similarly, the prevalence of hypothyroidism and sub clinical hypothyroidism was higher in females than males.
  Alam Khan , Shahmim Akhter , M. Mohsin Siddiqui , Gul Nawab and Khan Nawaz Khattak
  The effect of iodized and uniodized salt on the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in 411 individuals, who were the residents of Peshawar and its vicinity and were referred by physicians to the radio immunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar during 1998 for thyroid hormones tests. Out of these 411 individuals, 148 were using iodized salt and 263 were using uniodized salt. The iodized and uniodized salt users were called experimental and control groups, respectively. Blood samples were taken form both the groups and T3 and T4 in the blood serum were determined by radio immunoassay (RIA) while TSH was determined by immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). The mean concentration of T3 was 2.337 and 2.287 nmol L-1 in the experimental and control groups respectively. The mean concentration of T4 was 109.415 and 105.918 nmol L-1 in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The mean concentration of TSH was 3.99 and 4.55 miu L-1 in the experimental and control groups respectively. The result indicated that continuous use of iodized salt increased both T3 and T4 and decreased TSH in the experimental group which is an indication for thyrotoxicoses. However the increase in T3 and decrease in TSH were non significant but the increase in T4 was significant and at p<0.05 as compared to the control group. The data suggest that long and un-necessary use of iodized salt may produce sub clinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in the plain areas of NWFP. Close monitoring of T3, T4 and TSH of individuals, who are using iodized salt, is recommended.
  Mahpara Safdar and Alam Khan
  Cancer is characterized by the malignant cellular growth that tends to spread. It is the second leading cause of death after heart disease. Cancer incidence varies with regions and populations around the world. The incidence of various types of cancer ranges from rare of gallbladder to 12% of most common cancer of lung. In men, the minimum incidence of cancer is that of gallbladder (4.4%) an the maximum is the incidence of lung cancer (18.6%). In women, the minimum incidence of cancer is that of endometrium (3.44%) and the maximum is that of breast cancer (18.18%). Dietary prevention of cancer is also a long term process and it may take 10 to 60 years to have an impact, the time scale depending, to some extent on the type of cancer. The epidemiological data suggest that the major causative factor for the incidence of cancer is environment. The environmental factors causing cancer include diet, radiation, chemicals and tobacco. The diet plays a major role in the development and prevention of cancer. Consumption of more meat, fatty foods of animal origin and salted foods increase the incidence of cancer. Method of preparation like grilling and barbecuing of meat also increase the incidence of cancer. Intake of foods of plant origin reduce the chance of cancer incidence.
  M. Abdul Alim Al-Bari , M. Faruk Hossen , Alam Khan , M. Robiul Islam , M. Kudrat-E-Zahan , M. Ashik Mosaddik , Choudhury M. Zakaria and M. Anwar Ul Islam
  The aim of the present study was to investigate the biocidal activity of four new ferrocene derivative based coordination complexes, [1,2,3-trithia-|3|-ferrocenophane, C1]; [disodium-1,1’-ferrocenedithiolate, C2]; [1,1’-(ferrocene-1,1’-diyl)-diethanol, C3]; [ferrocenyl(ethyl-phenyl)-methanol, C4]; against microbes (bacteria and fungi) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina Lech.) nauplii. C2 showed modest antibacterial activity at the concentration of 200 μg disc-1 and gave its Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values at 32-64 μg mL-1 against the tested bacteria. These complexes gave comparatively better antibacterial activity against the Gram-positives than the Gram-negatives. C3, C1 and C4 showed moderate antifungal activity at concentration of 200 μg disc-1. Brine shrimp eggs were hatched in artificial sea water and exposed to the complexes. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated. Both complexes showed toxicity against brine shrimp but complex C3 explored its potent cytotoxicity having LC50 values at 6.031 μg mL-1 (ppm).
  Alam Khan and M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
  A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an abstention from Foods, fluids and sex from dawn to sunset, on food intake, body weight and blood chemistry was studied in ten healthy adult male human subjects. Foods and Fluids intake before and in the first and fourth week of Fasting were recorded. Body weight of the participants was noted before and at the last day of Fasting. Blood samples before, in the second and fourth week of Fasting and two weeks after Fasting were collected. The daily reduction in energy (Food intake) ranged from 200-1500 Kcal with an average value of 857± 410 Kcal. During the four weeks of Fasting, loss in body weight ranged from 0.5-6.0 Kg with an average value of 3.2±1.7 Kg. There were no significant differences in glucose, total protein, triglyceride and total, HDL and LDL cholesterol in the blood samples collected before, during and after the Fasting. The data suggest that Islamic Fasting is nutritionally safe and could be used as an effective strategy for prevention and control of obesity.
  Alam Khan , Mahpara Safdar and Mohammad Muzaffar Ali Khan
  The effect of cinnamon doses on blood serum triglyceride (TGL), total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) was studied in type 2 diabetic individuals for 60 days. Sixty type 2 diabetic individuals of both sexes and of age 48± 6.5 years were divided into 6 groups; each group was having 10 individuals. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were assigned for 1g, 3g and 6g cinnamon doses/day respectively. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were assigned for 1g, 3g and 6g placebo doses/day respectively. The doses were equally distributed over the day. Cinnamon and placebo were given in the form of capsules with breakfast, lunch and dinner. The doses were taken for 40 days and after 40 days; there was a 20 days blank period. Fasting blood samples were taken on days 0 (starting day of the experiment) 20, 40 and 60 and blood serums were separated. The TGL, cholesterol, HDL and LDL of blood serum of both the cinnamon and placebo groups were determined. Cinnamon doses significantly (P<0.05) reduced the mean fasting serum TGL and cholesterol levels while the placebo doses did not change the serum TGL and cholesterol levels. Cinnamon doses reduced the mean fasting serum HDL levels but the reduction was non significant at P<0.05, while placebo doses did not affect the serum HDL levels. Cinnamon doses significantly (P<0.05) reduced the mean fasting serum LDL levels while the placebo doses did not affect the serum LDL levels. The data demonstrated that cinnamon intake reduced blood serum TGL, cholesterol and LDL significantly (P<0.05) in type 2 diabetic individuals. In the light of this research, it is recommended that individuals who have high TGL, cholesterol and LDL levels, they should use cinnamon in their food preparations on regular basis. This will keep their TGL, cholesterol and LDL levels low.
  Imran Khan , Farukh Tabassum and Alam Khan
  For preparation of diet for diabetics, glycemic indicies and glycemic loads of local pulses namely chickpea, chana dal, kidney bean, mash bean, mung bean and peas were determined. Forty two male students of Agricultural University were recruited and were divided into six groups, with seven students in each group. Glucose was fed as reference and pulses as test foods. The pulses were cooked (only boiled) in tape water before feeding to the individuals. Fifty grams glucose, dissolved in 300 mL of water, was given to each individual of all the groups on day first and amount of the boiled pulses containing 50 g carbohydrate were given to each individual of the assigned group on the next day. Blood samples were collected from each individual of the groups before (fasting) the ingestion of glucose and test foods and 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion of glucose and test foods. Glycemic index was determined from the area under curves of glucose concentration for reference and test foods. Glycemic load was determined by taking the percentage of the food,s carbohydrate content in a typical serving and multipling by its glycemic index. The mean glycemic index for chick pea, chana dal, kidney bean, mash bean, mung bean and peas were 36, 13, 32, 43, 42 and 25 respectively. The mean glycemic loads for these pulses were 12, 4, 8, 10, 7 and 2 respectively. The results of the study indicated that local pulses have low glycemic indices and glycemic loads, hence could be safely use in the diet of diabetic patients.
  Ruqayya Sajjad and Alam Khan
  Pregnant women with poor nutritional status have an increased risk of birth outcomes. Nutritional assessment is an effective method of preventing potential complications in pregnant women. To assess and compare the dietary intake of nutrients and energy in pregnant women from antenatal care units of Peshawar. A Cross sectional study was carried out in Lady Reading hospital (Govt) and Alkhidmat (Private) hospital Peshawar for a period of three months. A total of 198 Pregnant Women (PW), 66 from each trimester were selected. The sub groups of PW in each trimester were <18 (n = 12), 19-30 (n = 151) and >31 (n = 35) years. Data about the socioeconomic status, educational status and food intake were collected by structured questionnaire. Nutrients were calculated using food composition tables. Percent adequacy for each nutrient was calculated. The nutrients were calculated from actual ingredients used for dish preparation and the quantity of food consumed by the pregnant women. The energy and protein intake of all PW were higher than RDA except belonging to 1st trimester. Intake level of Fe, Ca, Zn were below except age group >31 yrs (2nd trimester) in which Fe intake was 5.1%, The Mg and P intakes were higher except age group <18 (1st trimester) which was -11%. Intake of vitamin B12 and folate were below while intake of vitamin C was above the RDA except for age group <18 years (2nd and 3rd trimesters) which were -12.7 and -28.4%, respectively. Micronutrients were deficient in the diet of PW from both low and high income groups when compared with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).
  Fazilatun Nessa , Motiur Rahman , Ekramul Haque and Alam Khan
  No Description
  Alam Khan , Moizur Rahman and Md Shariful Islam
  Salviasperanol, a diterpenoid isolated from Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. (Araceae) was studied for in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. The disc diffusion technique was used to determine in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique to determine antibacterial potency. The MIC values against these bacteria ranged from 8 to 64 μg/mL. The compound showed significant antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β-haemolyticus) and six Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonus aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi). The compound showed weak antifungal activity against a number of fungi. In the cytotoxicity determination, the LC50 of the compound against brine shrimp nauplii was 8.02 μg/mL.
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