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Articles by Ahmed A. Al-Naeem
Total Records ( 4 ) for Ahmed A. Al-Naeem
  Ahmed A. Al-Naeem
  This study was carried out to determine the hydro-chemical processes and the metal concentration of spring water to evaluate its suitability for irrigation and other purposes. A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin. EC (dS m-1), pH, temperature, total cations (Na, Ca, Mg, K) and anions [Cl, CO3, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Fluoride (F)] were determined. Some trace and heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, B, Br, Mo, Ni, Si, Cd, Cu, V, Fe, I, Pb, Mn, Zn, Sr, Se, Sb, La and Se were determined. The Spring water is classified as C4S2 (high salinity with medium sodicity problem water). Chloride (Cl) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations were higher than the permissible limits according to World Health Organization Standards. The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops. The spring water is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, fluorite and aragonite and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to goethite, siderite and hematite minerals. The concentration of all the estimated trace metals was within the permissible limits for its use as drinking water and other purposes according to WHO. Since the spring water contains high concentration of NO3, hence can not be used for drinking purposes without prior treatment. The study findings suggest careful use and pumping of water from the spring. Further studies are required on regular basis to monitor the depletion in the spring water level and the temporal change in water salinity.
  Ahmed A. Al-Naeem
  Water shortage for irrigation is a major problem in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. Saudi Arabia faces similar problem of water shortage for irrigation due to arid climatic conditions coupled with low rainfall and limited groundwater supplies to meet the growing need of water from crop and other field crop irrigation. In Saudi Arabia, citrus is frown as a cover crop in the date palm orchard and needed more water for sustainable fruit production. The main objective of this study was to estimate evapotranspiration of citrus from climatic data for different regions of Saudi Arabia and compare it with the evapotranspiration determined elsewhere for efficient management of citrus trees grown under arid climatic conditions. This study compared four different methods of calculating evapotranspiration (ET) of citrus tree with a standard method for seven different regions of Saudi Arabia. The mean daily estimated ET (mm day-1) of citrus tree came to 1.83-8.66 (Hail), 2.14-8.26 (Kharaj), 2.45-7.23 (Taif), 1.61-7.73 (Qatif), 2.68-8.96 (Madinah), 2.14-8.10 (Hofuf) and 2.96-8.12 (Najran) regions of Saudi Arabia. The results showed definite differences in ET among the regions in Saudi Arabia. Also, ETE values were significantly higher than those found in Arizona, USA. However, among the four methods, Blaney-Criddle gave the highest ET values and the radiation method gave the lowest values. Overall, the study findings provided an excellent potential of using meteorological data for estimating the ET of different fruit trees other than citrus under varying arid climatic regions.
  Ahmed A. Al-Naeem
  Groundwater salinity is an important limiting factor to sustainable irrigated agriculture in Saudi Arabia. The total groundwater salinity depends on the aquifer geology and its chemical characteristics. The main objective of this study was to monitor groundwater salinity for water resources management in irrigated areas of Al-Jouf Region of Saudi Arabia. A total of 117 water samples were collected from randomly selected small, medium and large agricultural farms from the whole region. The water samples were mainly analyzed for major cation and anions. The total groundwater salinity in less than 1000 mg L–1 in the whole region and falls in the category of medium to high salinity and medium to high sodicity water. Inter-ion relationship is very poor between major cations and anions. The EC and SAR relationship is very poor (R2 = 0.038). About 91% of groundwater is of sodium chloride type waters and the remaining 9% is that of sodium sulfate type water. The relationship between simple SAR and calculated SARs is very strong (R2 = 0.988 and 0.983). The results showed a replenishment of groundwater aquifer with the fresh water intrusion. In conclusion, to achieve higher water use efficiency, improvement water management practices such as application of leaching requirements, adoption of improved irrigation methods (drip and sub-surface irrigation) and proper crop selection need to be followed for increased agricultural production in the region.
  Abdullah H. Alhameid and Ahmed A. Al-Naeem
  Al-Ahsa Oasis in one of the oldest and largest irrigated agriculture in Saudi Arabia. The main source of irrigation water is the groundwater extracted from different aquifers (Neogene, Al-Khobar and Dammam). The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of water quality of Dammam aquifer on well casing and other related equipments used for pumping water. The groundwater salinity ranged between 1.81-7.36 dS m-1 at various locations in the Oasis. The high salinity of groundwater may reduce the problems of corrosion by forming protected layers from some salts such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The DO values ranged from 3.9-5.6 mg L-1 in the groundwater in Al-Ahsa Oasis. The SI values ranged from -0.1 to -0.5 in the northern sector, -0.4 to 0.3 in the central sector and -0.4 to 0.5 in the eastern sector. The SI values indicated non-existence of corrosion problems to well casing under the present conditions. The research findings suggest that well equipments (casings, pumps, water supply networks) should be manufactured free of corrosion problems to avoid huge income losses to the farming community. It is also suggested that well drilling should be carried in those areas where rock formation is solid and the solubility of geological material of aquifer is very low. Lastly, it is suggested that application of excess fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides should be minimized to avoid deterioration of groundwater water quality thus resulting in improving the corrosion process of well equipments.
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