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Articles by Adel Ghoneim
Total Records ( 7 ) for Adel Ghoneim
  Amir Zaman Khan , H. Khan , R. Khan , Adel Ghoneim and Azza Ebid
  The aim of present study were to characterize the pattern of seed development in precociously mature soybean seeds planted on different dates during its progression from germination to seedling growth and maturation and its effect on yield under temperate environment. Changes in seed quality (Viability and Germination) were monitored from developmental to maturation (growth stage R5 to R7) of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in different planting dates. Information on the effect of planting date on seed fresh and dry weight, moisture content and germination of soybean is meager. A field experiment was conducted with four planting dates and two soybean cultivars to study the influence of planting dates on seed developmental traits for 2 years. Determinate cultivars (Epps, maturity group [MG] V) and indeterminate cultivar, Williams 82 [MG] 111) were planted on May 1st to August 1st at one month interval at the Agriculture Research Farm of the NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, during 2000 and 2001. Seeds were harvested at 10-days interval from 35 to 75 days after anthesis (DAA) in all planting dates. Epps planted in early May gave maximum fresh, dry seed weight and moisture content. A steady decrease in fresh and dry weight and moisture content were observed with delay in sowing of soybean. An inverse relationship was noted in Williams 82 regarding fresh, dry weight and moisture content in all planting dates. Water per seed increased up to 100% DAA, after which no further increase occurred. Moisture content declined for the whole seed, respectively, from above 75 and 65% at 95 DAA to 65 and 50% at 140 DAA in both cultivars. Decrease in seed moisture content during development was accompanied by increase in desiccation tolerance and germination, reaching maximum at physiological maturity in both cultivars. Fresh and dry seed germination increased linearly in both varieties. Mean rate of change in germination was more pronounce in Epps as compared to Williams 82. Immature seeds in both cultivars during early developmental stage did not germinate in all planting dates.
  Azza Ebid , Hideto Ueno and Adel Ghoneim
  To study the short term effects of rice residue management in comparison with mineral fertilizer on rice growth, yield, N uptake, changes of ammonia concentration, pH and EC of flooded water. Biomass yield was significantly higher in the mineral fertilizer and rice residue than in the control treatment. Total N uptake by rice was not significantly affected by rice residue incorporation. A lower N uptake in the rice residue plots can be attributed to relatively high C/N ratios. The result suggests that the application of rice residue at a suitable time is crucial for maximizing the beneficial effects of rice residue application. In particular, the increased immobilization process in early stages and the subsequent gradual remineralization allowed plant to utilize N more efficiently. Rice residue application noticeably reduced the pH of the flooded water as compared with mineral fertilizer alone.
  Adel Ghoneim , H. Ueno , A. Ebid , N. Asagi and I. Abou El darag
  The fates of nitrogen-15 (15N)-labeled biogas slurry (BS) and chemical fertilizer (CF) applied to soil with low fertility cropped with rice were investigated. The 15N dilution method was used to estimate N uptake and recovery; potted soil was labeled with 1.0 atom % excess [15N] ammonium chloride ([15N]NH4Cl). Certain select soil characteristics were also measured in soil amended with the slurry to explain N losses. The values of the % N derived by fertilizer application to the plant exhibited significant differences among different plant parts. N uptake from the CF applied to rice grain, straw and the roots was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that from BS, but the highest proportion of N uptake by rice was from the soil. At harvest, an average of 6.2 and 13.2% of applied N remained in the soil treated with the CF and BS, respectively. Fertilizer use efficiency calculated by the 15N dilution method tended to be higher for CF than BS. A significant amount of N fertilizer (average: 30%) was apparently lost from the soil-plant system by ammonia (NH3) volatilization. Following BS application, the pH increased by 1 to 1.2 units in the top 5 cm of the soil, resulting in high NH3 volatilization in the first 2 days of the experiment. The NH3 volatilization accounted for the decrease in soil ammonium-N (NH4+-N) content.
  Adel Ghoneim , Naoto Matsue and Teruo Henmi
  Mechanisms of change in charge characteristics after copper adsorption on one low Si/Al (KyP) and one high Si/Al (KnP) nano-ball allophane samples were investigated. The CEC values of the two nano-ball allophane samples tended to decrease while AEC increased after copper species adsorption at the initial concentration of 1.60 mM. The change in charge characteristics of the allophane samples was governed by the pH, Cu2+, CuOH+ in the solution and amounts of adsorption. The decline in the CEC values after adsorption was due to the neutralization reactions between the monomeric Cu2+ with Si-O- or Al-O- functional groups. Molecular orbital calculations indicated that Cu2+ and CuOH+ could adsorb not only on the dissociated Si-O- but also with the undissociated Si-OH groups. When copper ion reacted with undissociated Si-OH groups, dissociation reaction of silanol groups accelerated. The Cu2+ ion has a possibility to accelerate the deprotonation of undissociated Si-OH groups near the adsorption sites. The decrease in change CEC values was found to be higher in case of a higher Si/Al ratio (KnP) than that for the lower Si/Al ratio (KyP) counterpart, due to it`s a higher adsorptive capacity for copper species. The slight increase in the AEC values after zinc adsorption was probably due to in part to the initial H+ ions released into the bulk solution.
  Adel Ghoneim , Naoto Matsue , Azza Ebid and Teruo Henmi
  Effect of Zn adsorption on the change in charge characteristics of two nano-ball allophane samples with different Si/Al ratio at various pH values was studied. The Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) values of the two nano-ball allophane samples were likely to decrease whereas Anion Exchange Capacity (AEC) increased after Zn adsorption at initial concentration of 0.18 mM. The change in charge characteristics of the allophane samples was controlled by equilibrium pH, amounts of Zn adsorption and Zn species in the solution. The decrease in CEC values after Zn adsorption was due to neutralization reactions between cationic Zn with Si–O¯ functional groups. The decrease in CEC values was found to be higher in case of allophane sample with higher Si/Al ratio (KnP) than that with lower Si/Al ratio counterpart (KyP), due to its higher adsorptive capacity for Zn species. The slight increase in the AEC values after Zn adsorption was probably due to in part to the initial H+ ions released into the bulk solution. Molecular orbital calculation indicated that the adsorbed Zn species has a ability to accelerate the deprotonation of undissociated Si–OH groups near the adsorption sites by an inductive effect.
  Adel Ghoneim , Hideto Ueno and Azza Ebid
  Efficient liquid slurry land application requires knowledge of nutrient content, proper application rate and crop needs. An improved understanding of the cycling of biogas slurry N is a prerequisite for making better use of this N source. The efficiency of nitrogen (N) derived from biogas slurry must be determined to optimize use of N and reduce impact on the environment. Keeping in view, a pot experiment was initiated to estimate crop N uptake from biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer that applied to Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L.) using 15N isotope dilution method. In this experiment 180 kg N ha-1 of 1.0 atom % 15N excess ammonium chloride was used. Nitrogen derived from biogas slurry (Ndfs) and recovered-N (Nrfs) in Komatsuna was measured to know the effects of applied slurry on the performance of the crop and nutrient dynamics in a Brown Lowland Soil, Fluvisols west Japan. It was found out that 15N uptake was slightly higher in chemical fertilizer compared to slurry application. In addition, N uptake derived from chemical fertilizer (Ndfc) was better than that taken from soil (Ndfs). Fertilizer use efficiency (FUE-15N) was lower in slurry treatment (47.2%) than chemical fertilizer (65.9%). The relative efficiency (slurry use efficiency/chemical use efficiency *100) was varied in Komatsuna roots and leaves.
  Adel Ghoneim , Naoto Matsue , Azza Ebid and Teruo Henmi
  Effect of zinc adsorption on the change in surface acidity of two nano-ball allophane samples with varying Si/Al ratio was studied. Zinc adsorption caused the enhancement in the surface acidity of nano-ball allophane samples. The enhancement in the surface acidity after zinc species adsorption is attributed to the inductive effect on the Si–OH groups near the adsorption sites. Molecular orbital calculations indicated that Zn2+ ion has the possibility to accelerate deprotonation of the Si–OH functional groups near the adsorption site. The result showed that the surface acidity of the allophane sample with a higher Si/Al ratio (KnP) was stronger than the KyP sample with lower Si/Al ratio. This tendency was observed under RH between 0 and 76%; then, the acid strength for the two nano-ball samples was the same at RH of 100%. The stronger acidity of the KnP sample is attributed to its a higher number of accessory polymeric silanol groups attached to the main frame structure, which cause the enhancement of the Brønsted acidity. The higher increase in the acid strength of the KnP could be also attributed to its higher adsorptive capacity for zinc species.
 
 
 
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