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Articles by Ade Djulardi
Total Records ( 12 ) for Ade Djulardi
  Nuraini , Ade Djulardi and Maria Endo Mahata
  Durian fruit waste (peel and seed) can be used as an alternative feed based on the potential availability and nutrient content. Three experiments were conducted to improve the nutrient quality of durian fruit waste (DW) and tofu waste (TW) mixture through fermentation by using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa. The substrates consists of 70% DW (peel and seed in the same proportion) and 30% TW. Experiment 1 was performed in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment of completely randomized design with 3 replicates. First factor was inoculum composition of P. chrysosporium and N. crassa (1: 1, 2: 1 and 1: 2) and second factor was inoculums doses (6, 8 and 10%). Measured variables were Crude Fiber (CF) and Crude Protein (CP). Experiment 2 was to study incubation period (7, 9, 11 and 13 days). Measured variables were DTW’s CF, CP, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin. Experiment 3 was to compare nutrient content between fermented (the best treatment at experiment 2) vs. unfermented one. Measured variables were DTW’s nitrogen retention, amino acid profile, B carotene, tannin and Metabolizable Energy (ME). Result of the experiment 1, there was a very significant (p<0.01) interaction between inoculum compositions and inoculum doses in which P. chrysosporium and N. crassa inoculum composition (1:1) and 8% inoculum dose reduced CF and increased CP content. Experiment 2, incubation period of 9 days reduced CF, NDF, ADF, lignin and cellulose from 22.33, 32.49, 27.50, 15.81 and 17.62 to 8.30, 30.58, 20.26, 6.20 and 11.58%, respectively. Meanwhile increased CP and hemicellulose from 11.73 and 4.99 to 19.37 and 9.52%, respectively. Experiment 3, Nitrogen retention, B-carotene, tannin and ME content of fermented was better than unfermented DTW (42.50 vs 68.54%, 0 vs. 119.07 mg/kg, 3,76 vs 0.43% and 2586.84. vs. 2728.27 kkal/kg, respectively). Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa treatment improved DTW’s amino acids profile. In conclusion, fermentation by using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa (1:1), 8% inoculum dose and 9 day incubation period was the best treatment for improving DTW’s nutrient quality.
  Nuraini , Mirzah and Ade Djulardi
  Background: Marigold (Tagetes erecta) Flower Extract (MFE) is a natural source of carotenoid as a feed additive in the poultry diet. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of MFE as feed additive on production performances and egg quality of quail. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seven weeks old Coturnix coturnix japonica laying quail were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four dietary treatments: 0, 5, 10 and 15 ppm MFE in the diets with five replicates each. Variable measured were feed intake, hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion, egg cholesterol, egg fat and yolk color. Results: It was observed that feed intake, egg production, feed conversion, egg cholesterol and yolk color were significantly affected (p<0.05) by increasing MFE content in the diet. Feed intake, hen-day egg production and yolk color achieved the best results when 15 ppm MFE was included in the diet and resulted in the lowest levels of egg cholesterol and feed conversion. Conclusion: This study shows that 15 ppm MFE in the poultry diet improved production performance and increased egg quality (reduced egg cholesterol and increased egg yolk color) of Coturnix coturnix japonica laying quail.
  Nuraini , Ade Djulardi and Ade Trisna
  Background: Palm Oil Sludge (POS) represents an alternative to poultry feed but its utilization is limited due to the high content of crude fiber (lignin and cellulose) and low content of crude protein. Fermentation with lignocellulolytic fungi, which include Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, produce ligninase and cellulase enzyme have been used as an approach to increase POS nutrient levels and quality. This study evaluated the nutrient content and quality of POS after fermentation using different ligninocellulolytic fungi. Methodology: Two experiments were conducted in this study. Experiment 1 was performed as a 3×3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replicates. The first factor was lignocellulolytic fungi (Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and the second factor was incubation time (7, 11 and 15 days). Subsequently, Crude Fiber (CF), Crude Protein (CP), cellulose, lignin and cellulose enzyme activity were measured. Experiment 2 compared the nutrient content of fermented (the best treatment identified in experiment 1) and unfermented POS. In this experiment, the nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestion, Metabolizable Energy (ME) and amino acid profile of POS was measured. Results: In experiment 1, it was found that Pleurotus ostreatus significantly reduced CF, cellulose and lignin levels and increased CP content as well as cellulase enzyme activity after 11 days of incubation (p<0.01) Moreover, experiment 2 showed that nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestion and ME content levels in fermented POS were higher than in unfermented POS. Fermentation also improved the amino acid profile of POS. Conclusion: An 11 day fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus was identified as the best condition for improving the nutrient content and quality of POS.
  Ade Djulardi , Nuraini Nuraini and Ade Trisna
  Background and Objective: Palm oil sludge (POS) represents a viable alternative poultry feed component after being fermented by the lignocellulolytic fungi, Lentinus edodes (produces ligninase and cellulase), which increases POS nutrient levels and quality. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of utilizing POS fermented by L. edodes (POSF) in broiler diets on growth performance. Methodology: The present study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five dietary treatment groups (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% POSF) and four replicates per treatment (5 broilers per replicates). One hundred 3 day-old broiler chicks were included in the study. Diets were isonitrogenous (23% crude protein) and isocaloric (3000 kcal kg–1 diet). The measured parameters were feed consumption, average daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage and meat cholesterol content. Results: Addition of dietary POSF levels up to 16% resulted in good feed consumption, weight gain, carcass percentage and feed conversion but decreased (p<0.01) meat cholesterol content. Conclusion: Up to 16% POSF in the diet resulted in good production performance while reducing the cholesterol content of broiler meat, indicating that this feed supplement should be considered for industrial use.
  Mirnawati , Ade Djulardi and Gita Ciptaan
  Background and Objective: Palm kernel cake (PKC) can potentially be used as feedstuff, especially for poultry. PKC needs to be processed in advance, by fermentation, with Sclerotium rolfsii. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of palm kernel cake fermented (PKCF) with Sclerotium rolfsii in the diet of broiler. Materials and Methods: Two hundred day-old chicks (DOC) were used in this study. The diet was arranged based on the equal amount of energy and protein, which were 3000 kcal kg–1 and 22%, respectively. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were arranged as follows: (1) 10% PKCF (control diet), (2) 15% PKCF, (3) 20% PKCF, (4) 25% PKCF and (5) 30% PKCF in broiler diet. The parameters measured were feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, body weight, carcass weight, crude fiber digestibility and nitrogen retention of broiler. Results: Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, body weight, carcass weight, crude fiber digestibility and nitrogen retention were highly significantly decreased (p<0.01) with any treatment. Conclusion: The palm kernel cake fermented (PKCF) with Sclerotium rolfsii can be used up to 25% in broiler ration.
  Nuraini , Mirzah and Ade Djulardi
  Background and Objective: Turmeric (Curcuma domestica, Val) extract (TE) is a natural source of yellow-orange pigment and a natural source of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and antitumor compounds. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of TE as a feed additive on egg production performances and egg quality of laying quail. Materials and Methods: This study used 208 week old Laying quails. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm TE in drinking water) with four replicates each. The basal diet contained 20% crude protein and 2800 kcal kg–1. The parameters measured were feed intake, hen day-egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion, egg yolk color and egg cholesterol content. Results: Increasing the TE level significantly increased (p<0.05) feed intake and hen-day egg production, egg mass production and egg yolk color but significantly decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion and egg cholesterol content. Feed intake, hen-day egg production and yolk color were optimal with the inclusion of 20 ppm TE in the drinking water while egg cholesterol content and feed conversion were lowest at this concentration. Conclusion: This study shows that 20 ppm TE increased the egg production performance and egg quality of laying quail without notable negative effects and therefore should be considered.
  Nuraini Nuraini , Yuliati Shafan Nur and Ade Djulardi
  Background and Objective: Cocoa pods can be used as a nonconventional animal feed but their utilization is limited due to their high crude fiber (lignin and cellulose) and low crude protein content. Fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus, a lignocellulolytic fungus (producing ligninase and cellulase enzymes), has been used to increase crude protein (CP) levels and quality. This study evaluated the nutrient content and quality of cocoa pods fermented in combination with different nitrogen sources, such as tofu waste (TW), soy meal waste (SMW) and rice bran (RB), using Pleurotus ostreatus. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed by using a completely randomized design with 4 treatments, namely, A (100% CP), B (80% CP+20% TW), C (80% CP+20% SMW) and D (80% CP+20% RB) and 5 replicates. Subsequently, crude protein, crude fiber (CF), nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestion and cellulose enzyme activity were measured. Results: The results of the experiment showed that cocoa pods with the tofu waste nitrogen source fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus significantly reduced CF and increased crude protein content, nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestion and cellulase activity (p<0.01). Conclusion: An 80% CP with 20% TW combination fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus was identified as the best condition for improving the nutrient content and quality of cocoa pods.
  Nuraini Nuraini , Ade Djulardi and Ade Trisna
  Background and Objective: Palm kernel cake (PKC) represents an available alternative poultry feed component, fermentation of PKC by Lentinus edodes (L. edodes), a lignocellulolytic fungus (that produces ligninase and cellulase enzymes), increases the nutrient content and the quality of PKC. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of PKC fermented with L. edodes (PKCF) in quail diets on the production performance and egg quality. Materials and Methods: The present study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five dietary treatment groups (0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% PKCF) and four replicates per treatment (10 quails per replicate). Two hundred and seven-week-old quails were included in the study. Diets were iso nitrogenous (20% crude protein) and iso caloric (2800 kcal kg–1). The measured parameters included feed consumption, hen -day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production and feed conversion and egg cholesterol content. Results: Addition of dietary PKCF up to 25% resulted in good feed consumption, hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion and the addition of PKCF decreased (p<0.01) egg cholesterol content. Conclusion: It is concluded that up to 25% PKCF in the diet resulted in good egg production performance while reducing the cholesterol content of the quail egg, indicating that this feed supplement should be considered for industrial use.
  Wizna , Hafil Abbas , Yose Rizal , Ade Djulardi and Helmi Muis
  An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of rice bran which supplemented with Zn, Sulfur and urea through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) as inoculums. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of catalytic substrate consisting of Zn, sulfur and urea on the substrata characteristics and its microbial population.The experiment was determination of the optimum conditions (dosage of Zn, Sulfur and urea) for rice bran fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental methods, using the completely randomize design in factorial with 3 treatments were : 1) A factor (Dose of urea: A1 = 1.0%, A2 = 1.5%, A3 = 2.0%), 2) B factor (Dose sulfur: B1 = 0.2%, B2 = 0.4%, B3 = 0.8%) and 3) C factor (Dose Zn: C1 = 0.0025%, C2 = 0.005%, C3 = 0.0075%). Results of study showed that optimum conditions of the fermentation of rice brand was at 2% urea, 0.0025% Zn and 0.2% sulfur. The protein level increased 100% and the mineral content 60%, accompanied by 8.2% of increase in the digestibility. The level of phytic acid decreased 97%. This conditions can increase 36% of metabolizable energy, 15% nitrogen retention, 98% crude fiber digestible.
  Mirnawati , Ade Djulardi and Yetti Marlida
  An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of palm kernel cake through fermentation by Eupenicillium javanicum with combination inoculums dosage and fermented time. The experiment used complete randomized design (CRD) with 3x3 factorial and twice replication. The first factor was inoculums dosage: (1) 4, (2) 7 and (3) 10%. The second factor was fermented time: (1) 7 days, (2) 11 days and (3) 15 days. The parameters were dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber and fat of palm kernel cake fermented. The result of study showed that there was highly significant (p<0.01) interaction between inoculums dosage and fermented time to dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber but crude fat was no interaction (p>0.05). Each factor, inoculums dosage and fermented time were significantly (p<0.05) affected to dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber and crude fat. It is concluded that palm kernel cake fermented by Eupenicillium javanicum showed inoculums dosage 10% and fermented time 11 days had a better nutrient content. This condition can be seen in dry matter (42.21%), crude protein 26.27% and crude fiber 11.37% of palm kernel cake fermented.
  Mirnawati , Ade Djulardi and Gita Ciptaan
  Objective: An experiment was conducted to understand the effects of different microbes and doses of humic acid on the quality and nutrient content of Fermented Palm Oil Sludge (FPOS). Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted using a 2×3 factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications. The first factor was two species of microbe, Neurospora sitophila and Neurospora crassa and the second was different doses of humic acid: (1) 100 ppm, (2) 200 ppm and (3) 300 ppm. The study parameters were the crude protein content, crude fiber content, nitrogen retention and digestible crude fiber content of FPOS. Results: The study parameters were more significantly affected by the interaction between the type of microbe and the dose of humic acid (p<0.01) than the humic acid dose alone. FPOS treated with Neurospora crassa and humic acid at 200 ppm showed better values for crude protein (23.74%), crude fiber (20.14%), crude lipid (2.70%), nitrogen retention (60.97%) and digestible crude fiber (55.63%) compared to FPOS treated with Neurospora sitophila. Conclusion: It is concluded that POS fermented with Neurospora crassa and 200 ppm humic acid provides the best food content and quality of FPOS.
  Mirnawati , Gita Ciptaan and Ade Djulardi
  Background and Objective: Palm oil sludge, as a byproduct of the palm oil industry, is an agricultural waste product that can be used as an alternative feedstuff for poultry. Palm oil sludge also contains nutrients that can be used as feed ingredients for poultry. Palm oil sludge is limited in use in broiler rations because of its low quality and nutrient content. For this reason, it is necessary to process palm oil sludge by fermentation methods to improve the quality and the nutrient content. This study aimed to determine the combined effect of fungi (P. chrysosporium and N. crassa) and fermentation time to improve the quality of fermented palm oil sludge. Materials and Methods: The materials used in this study were palm oil sludge, the fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa and fermentation materials and tools. This experimental study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3×3 factorial pattern with 3 replications. The treatments consisted of factor A (combination of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa), which consisted of A1 (3:1), A2 (3:2) and A3 (4:1) and factor B (fermentation time), which consisted of B1 (7 days), B2 (10 days) and B3 (13 days). Results: The results of the analysis of variance showed that there was a significant interaction (p<0.05) between factor A and factor B. Each factor A and B showed a significant effect (p<0.05). Conclusion: In this study, it was concluded that the combination of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa (4:1) and 13 days of fermentation time provided optimal results, with 26.20% crude protein, 14.49% crude fiber, 14.54% lignin, 58.20% nitrogen retention and 57.66% crude fiber digestibility.
 
 
 
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