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Articles by Aberra Melesse
Total Records ( 4 ) for Aberra Melesse
  Getachew Bekele , Gebeyehu Goshu , Aberra Melesse , Wondmeneh Esatu and Tadelle Dessie

Background and Objective: The first phase of characterization of indigenous chicken involves the identification of population based on morphological descriptors that can also provide useful information on the suitability of breeds for selection. The study was conducted to characterize on-farm phenotypic and morphological features of indigenous chicken population in selected districts of Gambella regional state, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Both purposive and random sampling techniques were used to collect the data and assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire survey. Data on visual appraisal and linear body measurements were obtained from a total of 600 matured local chickens of both sexes taken from 384 households. Linear body measurements were analyzed using the generalized linear model procedures. Results: The majority of the male chickens possessed red plumage color (30.5%) and most of chicken populations had single combs (80.84%), plain head shape (96.5%), yellow shanks color (85.34%) and feathered Shanks (1.67%). The male chickens were generally heavier (1.38 kg) than the female chickens (1.16 kg). The mean for body length, shank length, keel bone length, wingspan, wattle length, comb length and comb height of the cocks were 39.76, 10.19, 11.66, 65.77, 3.44, 5.28 and 2.15 cm, respectively. Conclusion: Variation in qualitative traits such as plumage color, feather distribution, comb type, earlobe color, shank feather, head shape and shank color indigenous chickens were evaluated in the study areas. The dominant plumage colour of the cocks was red followed by black and Gebsima (greyish with varying mixture) with other colors and in hens brown color followed by black and white.

  Berhanu Bekele , Aberra Melesse , Wondmeneh Esatu and Tadelle Dessie

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between live body weight and linear body measurements and to establish a model for predicting body weight using linear body parameters of the indigenous chickens of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 520 adult chickens (130 males and 390 females) were randomized from three agro-ecologies (120 from lowland, 200 from midland and 200 from highland). Body parameters including beak length, body length, breast circumference, comb length, ear lobe length, shank circumference, shank length, wattle length and wingspan were measured using flexible measuring tape. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS. Results: Agro-ecology had significant effect (p<0.05) on body length, live body weight, breast circumference, shank circumference, shank length and wingspan. In indigenous chickens, the strong, positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation of body weight with breast circumference, body length and shank length indicate that, these variables could provide a good estimate in predicting body weight of chicken. Body length, chest circumference and shank length showed highest R2 (0.599, 0.517 and 0.382), respectively. This indicates that 59.9, 51.7 and 38.2% of body weight variation in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia depends on body length, breast circumference and shank length, respectively. Equivalently, linear measurements with highest R2 imply that they could be the best predictors of body weight of indigenous chickens in Ethiopia. Live body weight had significant (p<0.05) association with the linear body measurements; body length, chest circumference, shank length and wingspan to which the model has been subjected. Therefore, multiple linear regression model relating body weight and linear body measurements of Ethiopian indigenous chicken is Ŷ = -0.949+0.039BoL+0.037SL+0.026BC+0.006WS. Conclusion: Body length, shank length and breast circumference can be used to predict body weight of Ethiopian indigenous chicken compared to the other linear body measurements.

  Aberra Melesse , Herbert Steingass , Margit Schollenberger and Markus Rodehutscord
  Background and Objective: Crop production provides a range of agro-industrial by-products and crop residues that have been utilized by ruminants and non-ruminants. However, they are also potential sources of methane emission. Moreover, limited information is available on the methane production profiles of these by-products and crop residues. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the chemical, mineral and amino acid compositions and methane production profiles of agro-industrial by-products and crop residues. Materials and Methods: Feed samples of agro-industrial by-products and crop residues were collected and processed and ground to pass 1 mm sieve size. Chemical, mineral and amino acid compositions were analyzed using standard procedures. In vitro gas and methane production profiles were determined according to established procedures. Results: Meat and bone meal (MBM) and fish offal waste (FOW) contained high crude protein (574 and 487 g kg1 DM, respectively). Calcium and phosphorous concentrations in MBM were 67.6 and 36.1 g kg1 DM, respectively. Fat content in FOW was highest followed by MBM. Wheat bran had the highest starch (387 g kg1 DM) and noug seed cake (NSC) the highest iron (4383 g kg1 DM) and manganese (189 g kg1 DM). The NSC contained higher concentrations of arginine, cystein, methionine and histidine than those of wheat bran. Methane production was highest (p<0.05) in wheat bran while it was lowest (p<0.05) in FOW. Conclusion: The FOW and MBM might be used as suitable feed combinations with crop residues to mitigate methane emission from the livestock agriculture.
  Aberra Melesse , Zemene Worku and Yosef Teklegiorgis
  The importance of scavenging poultry production in the national economy of developing countries and its role in improving the nutritional status and income of many smallholders has been very significant. A survey based experiment was conducted in 196 households to assess the production system and egg qualities of scavenging chickens reared in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones of Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. For egg quality determination, among 196 households 30 of them who keep only local chicken ectypes were identified from each agro-ecology from which 588 eggs (196 eggs from each agro-ecology) were collected. The results indicated that about 95 and 70% of the respondents fumigate day old chicks with smoke and clip tail feathers, respectively. The flock size in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies was 8.5, 7.4 and 8.4 chickens, respectively. The average age at first egg lay was 6.94, 6.43 and 6.57 months for highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies, respectively. The survivability of chickens in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones was 55.0, 61.4 and 55.1%, respectively. On the average 79.1% hatchability, 58.3% chick survivability was found in the study area. The observed values of egg weight, egg length, egg width, yolk height, albumen height and Haugh unit were significantly different (p<0.05) between the investigated agro-ecologies. Accordingly, all these traits were (p<0.05) higher in midland than highland and lowland agro-ecological zones. However, agro-ecology did not show any significant effect on shape index, shell thickness, yolk width and yolk index. The respective average egg weight, shell thickness and shape index values were 39.6 g, 0.296 mm and 73.2%. The average values of yolk height, yolk width and Haugh unit were 16.1, 36.8 and 73.2 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the midland agro-ecological system appears to favor the survivability and expression of both external and internal egg quality traits of scavenging rural chickens.
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