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Articles by Abeer A. Ali
Total Records ( 4 ) for Abeer A. Ali
  K.M. Abd El-Hai and Abeer A. Ali
  Background and Objective: In Egypt, peanut is one of the most important crops for exportation and local consumption. It is a good source of dietary proteins and contains high lipid that is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Damping-off and root rot diseases are the main constraints in peanut production. The current study aimed to determine the effect of cell-free filtrates of Trichoderma harzianum (T), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Y) and/or Rhizobium japonicum (R) on the control of damping-off and root rot diseases in peanut. Materials and Methods: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii were the common causal pathogens isolated from naturally infected peanut, causing damping-off and root rot diseases. Peanut seeds cv. Giza 6 were soaked for 4 h in each tested treatment before sowing; treatments also used as a foliar spraying at 28 days from sowing. While, fungicide Rizolex-T50 was used as seed coating at 3 g kg–1 seeds. Results: In the in vitro tests, the combined application of T+Y+R culture filtrates at the rate of 1:2:1 and the dual application of T+Y completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi. While, R alone had no significant effect on the fungal linear growth. In vivo, the best protection against damping-off and root rot diseases were observed under fungicide (Rizolex-T50) application followed by the combination of T+Y+R (1:2:1). All culture filtrates of T, Y, R and their combinations stimulated the activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and chitinase. The highest activity was obtained by the combined application of T+Y+R (2:1:1) for polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. While the highest chitinase activity was observed with Y treatment alone. The application of T+Y+R increased the percentage of plant survivals and improved plant growth and yield. Conclusion: The application of a mixture of biotic culture filtrates was more effective in decreasing the infection of soil borne fungi in peanut. Wherein, a commercial production of a mixture of growth filtrates of T+Y+R is recommended for therapy both damping-off and root rot diseases in peanut plant.
  Abeer A. Ali , K.M. Abd El-Hai and Marwa A.M. Atwa
  Chocolate spot disease is a major limiting factor of faba bean growth and productivity. In this study, laboratory and field experiments were conducted in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 winter seasons to determine the effect of molybdenum, boron and calcium in comparison to bio-fungicide (blight stop) and chemical fungicide (Kocide 101) for the management of chocolate spot disease and enhancing growth, physiological activities and yield of faba bean plants. The results of laboratory experiments revealed that boron at 6 ppm was the most effective on decreasing pathogen growth after kocide 101 and blight stop. However, calcium 6 mL L-1 has no effect on fungal linear growth. In field, kocide 101 and blight stop led to the maximum reduction of chocolate spot disease severity followed by boron at 2 ppm then molybdenum at 4 ppm then calcium at 6 mL L-1. The highest values of chlorophyll a and b were recorded with calcium 4 mL L-1 followed by boron at 2 ppm. Also, the high total phenol and wyeron acid content obtained from the application of boron at 2 ppm after blight stop and kocide 101. From nutritional elements, calcium at 6 mL L-1 gave highest increase in plant height followed by boron 2 ppm then molybdenum 4 ppm. The highest increase in branches number was recorded with boron at 2 ppm. Calcium at 6 mL L-1 gave the highest values of pods number, plant seed yield and weight of 100 seed followed by boron at 2 ppm. Nutritional elements (boron at 2 ppm, calcium 6 mL L-1 and molybdenum at 4 ppm) are promising trend in decreasing of chocolate spot disease of faba bean, where it decreased infection, environmental friendly and coast effective compared with the ordinary fungicides.
  S. Farouk , Safaa A. Youssef and Abeer A. Ali
  Early blight of tomato is a fungal disease, caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Jones and Grout, is a major disease of Solanaceae. Therefore, for commercial cultivation in the field controlling early blight is necessary. The use of natural compounds as alternatives or complements to chemical fungicides would be helpful because the crops require continued prolonged harvesting, during which young unsprayed leaf tissue continuously become available for infestation. Several natural compounds were tested on tomato plants grown under field condition and natural infestation to evaluate the potential of biostimulants on improving tomato plant growth, yield and to induce protection from early blight disease. Foliar application of chitosan (Chit), humic acid (HA), seaweed extract (SE) and thiamine (Thi) proved to be effective in reducing early blight disease incidence in tomato plants. All tested biostimulants, in particular, thiamine significantly increased tomato growth parameters (shoot length, no. of branches and leaves per plant, shoot fresh and dry weight and leaf area per plant) and some physiological aspects (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and chlorophyll as well as total carbohydrate content) in the shoot. In addition, tomato yield/fed was also increased. Thi at 50 mg L-1 and SE at 500 mg L-1 were the most effective in this concern. Thi and SE could be recommended for controlling early blight disease of tomato in the field and improving its growth and yield.
  Abeer A. Ali , K.M. Ghoneem , M.A. El-Metwally and K.M. Abd El-Hai
  Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors vis: chitosan (CHI), salicylic acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L-1 and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L-1 and HQ at 1.2 g L-1 inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L-1 was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L-1 proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L-1 or HQ at 1.2 g L-1 was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment.
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