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Articles by Abdulkareem Albekairy
Total Records ( 2 ) for Abdulkareem Albekairy
  Abdulmalik Alkatheri , Abdulkareem Albekairy and Mahmoud Mansour
  The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is usually associated with its systemic action on cardiovascular homoeostasis. Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Previous studies suggested that at a local tissue RAS influences tumor growth. It has been reported that local RAS appears to influence tumor growth and metastases and there is evidence of tissue- and tumor-specific differences. These include modulation of angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, immune responses and extracellular matrix formation. Therefore, apart from conventional chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor vasculature by vascular disrupting agents or inhibitors of angiogenesis has also been used. Knowledge of the RAS has increased dramatically in recent years. Manipulation of the RAS may, therefore, provide a safe and inexpensive anticancer strategy. Therefore, Blockade of the RAS may, therefore, provide an alternative, adjunctive therapy for the treatment of solid tumors.
  Abdulmalik Alkatheri , Abdulkareem Albekairy and Mahmoud Mansour
  Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and the most severe of diabetic ocular complications. Special attention is focused on aldose reductase, the first enzyme of the sorbitol pathway of glucose metabolism. Aldose reductase (E.C. 1.1.1.21), an intracellular enzyme of polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol. Under normoglycemia, most of the cellular glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase. A minor part of non-phosphorylated glucose enters the polyol pathway, the alternate route of glucose metabolism. However, under hyperglycemia, because of saturation of hexokinas with ambient glucose, aldose reductase is activated leading to excessive production of sorbitol. Intracellular accumulation of sorbitol is thought to result in irreversible damage. This review describes retinal changes at different stages of diabetic retinopathy and risk factors associated with this devastating disease. In diabetic eye the increased sorbitol accumulation in retina has been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinopathy, characterized by pericyte loss, basal membrane thickening, the major ocular complications of diabetes. Nearly all diabetic subjects will have the same degree of retinopathy after 20 years of diabetes. Almost 50% of patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus will have proliferative retinopathy after 15 years. In addition, macular edema frequently produces central vision loss and blindness most commonly in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The review also analyzes the potential mechanisms underlying aldose reductase involvement in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and discusses interactions between aldose reductase and other pathogenetic factors such as formation of advanced glycation end-products, oxidative-nitrosative stress, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, inflammation and growth factor imbalances. Therefore, aldose reductase enzyme inhibition is becoming one of the therapeutic strategies that have been proposed to prevent or ameliorate long-term diabetic complications.
 
 
 
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