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Articles by Abdul Shakoor
Total Records ( 4 ) for Abdul Shakoor
  Abid Hussain , Abdul Shakoor , Muhammad Akbar Shahid , Muhammad Numan and Fahad Gulraiz
  Mastitis continues to be a major economic issue for dairy producers all over the world. Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated from bubaline mastitis and brings about glandular tissues changes obliterating the milk producing cells. Elimination of this organism from dairy herds requires treatment of infected mammary glands with antimicrobial agents and aggressive culling of refractory animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the disease characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in buffaloes and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates. Visual inspection and palpation indicated as; asymmetry between hind quarters (n = 3), symmetry between hind quarters (n = 3), asymmetry between front quarters (n = 1), symmetry between front quarters (n = 5), Clinical symptoms (n = 2), udder and teat’s wounds (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), warts (teat) (n = 1) and all others parameters were normal. A total of 100 milk samples (20 clinical and 80 sub-clinical) from mastitic quarters of buffaloes were collected. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of recovered isolates Staphylococcus aureus were as; co-trimaxazole (100%), oxytetracycline (95.65%), amoxicillin (86.95%), gentamycin (86.95%), ampicillin (82.60%), ciprofloxacin (82.60%), chloramphenicol (82.60%), enrofloxacin (69.56%) and novabiocin (60.86%).
  Abdul Shakoor and Mumahhad Naeem
  One local variety (local landrace) and one improved variety of sorghum PARC SS-1 were subjected to farmers’ production practice and improved production technology at National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, during the summer seasons of 1997 and 1998. Significant differences were found among the treatments for days to flowering, plant height, insect and disease score, grain and stover yields. Interaction only for grain yield was significant. Flowering was enhanced by three days when improved method of production was used. Where farmers’ method was applied, flowering delayed by five days which shows that with application of inputs, flowering was enhanced. Plant height of both local and improved varieties was increased significantly with application of fertilizer and other inputs. The improved variety was more resistant (2.5) than the local variety (4.5) with regard to shootfly infestation. Similarly the improved variety was found more resistant (1.0) to foliar diseases than the local variety (4.0). Where either farmers’ or improved variety was used with farmers’ practice, the plots were heavily infested with weeds. When the same varieties were subjected to primextra herbicide at 0.75 kg ha–1 (ai) the weeds remained controlled as compared to the ones with no herbicide. When complete improved package of production technology (improved variety+recommended doses of fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and optimum plant density) was adopted, it gave significantly higher grain (2472 kg ha–1) and stover (21.3 t ha–1) yields. The higher grain as well as stover yields, are thus attributed to the use of improved variety coupled with the recommended doses of inputs. The improved variety PARC-SS-1 yielded significantly higher grain yield of 1617 kg ha–1 and stover yield of 16.6 t ha–1 in comparison with local variety, which yielded grain yield of 671 kg ha–1 and stover yield of 8.2 t ha–1. It shows that with the use of only improved variety one can get manifold grain as well as stover yields. The economic analysis showed that by adoption of improved production technology highest net income of Rs.14503 ha–1 was obtained when compared to the farmers’ traditional method of cultivation.
  Abdul Shakoor , Shamsul Islam and M. Naeem
  Sorghum variety PARC-SS-2 was subjected to five different herbicides with different levels of active ingredients for control of weeds in comparison with hand-weeded and un-weeded check during summer seasons of 1997 and 1998 at the National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad. Weed population significantly reduced from 73.79 to 90.04 percent due to the application of various herbicides and by 78.69 percent due to hand weeding over the un-weeded check. Reduction in weed population per unit area was more in the increased levels of herbicides. All treatments gave significantly higher grain yields than the unweeded check in both the years. The grain yield of the plots treated with Metolachlor+Atrazine at 1.00 kg ha–1 was significantly more than the plots treated with either dose of other herbicides or hand weeded in both the years. At the two levels of herbicides the increase in yield ranged from 845 to 1144 kg ha–1 through Metolachlor+Atrazine at 1.00 kg ha–1, 328 to 1144 kg ha–1 by hand weeding and 665 to 1750 kg ha–1 by Metolachlor+Atrazine at 0.75 kg ha–1, as compared to no weeding. As such, increase in the levels of herbicides increased the yield. It was found that the yield from hand-weeded plots was more than all the herbicides at either level. However, Metolachlor+Atrazine at 1.00 kg ha–1 (ai), higher level resulted significantly higher yields than the hand weeded ones. The effect of the lower level of Metolachlor+Atrazine at 0.75 kg ha–1 (ai), was at par with hand-weeded plots. Though the difference was there, but it was non-significant statistically. The higher doses of these herbicides which have resulted significant grain yield, could be considered for higher return. The economic analysis revealed that there was increased net income from the plots treated with herbicides or hand weeded over the unweeded check. The highest marginal rate of return (MMR) of 404.16 percent was obtained from T3 (the plots treated with Metolachlor+Atrazine at 1.00 kg ha–1 (ai) followed by T6 (Metolachlor+Atrazine at 0.75 kg ha–1 (ai) with MRR of 297.22 percent while that of hand weeded treatment the MRR was 229.54 percent.
  Abdul Shakoor and Mumahhad Naeem
  Studies were undertaken to know the performance of different agronomic traits under farmer's vs improved pearl millet production technologies for enhanced productivity and net economic return. Significant differences were found between treatments as well as varieties for days to flowering, plant height, disease score, grain and stover yields. Flowering was delayed by two days when improved method of production was used. Where farmer's method was applied, flowering delayed by four days in comparison with improved technology. These results indicate that with application of inputs, flowering was enhanced. Plant height of both local and improved varieties was increased significantly with application of fertilizer and other inputs. The improved variety was found more resistant (1.13) to foliar diseases than the local variety (2.28). Where either farmer's variety or improved variety was used with farmer's practice, the plots were heavily infested with weeds right from the germination stage of the crop. When the same varieties were subjected to primextra herbicide at 0.50 kg ha–1 (a.i) the weeds remained controlled as compared to the ones with no herbicide. The higher grain and stover yields are attributed to the application of primextra herbicide. Where complete improved package of production technology (improved variety+recommended doses of fertilizers, herbicides and optimum plant density) was adopted, it gave significantly higher grain (1569 kg ha–1) and stover (21.30 t ha–1) yields. When farmer's traditional method of production was practiced, it produced lowest grain yield of 722 kg ha–1 and stover yield of 7.2 t ha–1. The higher grain and stover yields, are thus due to the use of improved variety coupled with the recommended doses of inputs. The improved variety PARC MS-1 yielded significantly higher grain yield of 1089 kg ha–1 and stover yield of 12.7 t ha–1 in comparison with local variety which yielded grain yield of 722 kg ha–1 and stover yield of 5.7 t ha–1, indicating that with the use of only improved variety the grain as well as stover yields are increased more than double of the local variety. The economic analysis showed that by adoption of improved production technology highest net income of Rs.13810 ha–1 was obtained when compared to the farmer's traditional production technology.
 
 
 
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