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Articles by Abdul Rohman
Total Records ( 22 ) for Abdul Rohman
  Abdul Rohman , Retno Sunarminingsih and Y.B. Che Man
  In pharmaceutical field, Cod Liver Oil (CLO) is one of the potential sources of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins, especially vitamin A. In the fats and oils industry, CLO has high price. As a consequence, some market players try to blind CLO with other fats and oils to gain economics profit. Animal fats like Mutton Fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with CLO due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in CLO. The combined spectral regions of 3,010-2995 and 1,500-900 cm-1 were used for classification between CLO and CLO blended with MF at various concentrations, with the aid of Discriminant Analysis (DA). DA is able to classify CLO and CLO adulterated with MF without any mistakenly grouped. These frequency regions were also used for quantification of MF in CLO, offering the highest R2 value (0.992) and the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) value (1.31% v/v), compared with other studied spectral regions.
  EllsyaAngeline Rawar and Abdul Rohman
  A Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS-flame) for the quantification of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and mercury analyzer for quantitative analysis of mercury (Hg) in red chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.) were developed and validated. The method was validated for some parameters, namely linearity and range, precision, accuracy, Limit of Detection (LoD) and Limit of Quantification (LoQ), according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). The standard curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.1-1.4 μg mL–1 (Cd), 0.10-1.80 μg mL–1 (Pb) and 0.5-20 μg mL–1 with correlation coefficient (r) values >0.99. The detection limits obtained were 0.022 μg mL–1, 0.0594 μg mL–1 and 1.77 μg mL–1 for Cd, Pb and Hg, respectively. The quantification limits obtained were 0.075 μg mL–1 (Cd), 0.1981 μg mL–1 (Cd) and 5.91 μg mL–1 (Hg). The Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values found for its intra-day and interday precision were lower than those required by RSD Horwitz. The mean recovery percentage was 97.98-101.9133%.The validated methods were successfully used for determination of Cd, Pb and Hg in red chili pepper.
  Luthfia Indriyani , Abdul Rohman and Sugeng Riyanto
  The potential application of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) combined with multivariate calibration was used to verify adulteration of avocado oil from Indonesian avocado cultivars with Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Superolein (RBDPSO). Avocado oil and adulterant were characterized by significantly different cooling and heating DSC thermal profiles. The addition of RBDPSO makes the shift of overall transitions temperature toward lower temperature, enhancing crystallization, melting enthalpy and developing both process over a narrower temperature range. The change of characteristic exothermic and endothermic event in avocado oil with increasing adulterant was possibly associated with the increase of oleic and stearic acids along the decrease of palmitoleic acid. The multivariate calibration approach was applied to DSC data in order to build the quantitative calibration model for adulterant concentration in a range of 0-50%, (v/v). Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) were tested to these mixtures. Generally, both calibration models showed good correlation coefficient (R) with low errors in both calibration and validation sets. But, SMLR model showed better criteria values than PLSR, not only on DSC crystallization profile data but also on heating profiles data. The crystallization models of SMLR and PLSR showed the higher R value (above 0.99) than melting calibration models. The results presented in this study suggest that DSC analysis may be a useful tool for detecting adulteration of avocado oil with RBDPSO. The DSC represent a rapid, environmentally friendly and alternative option for avocado oil quality screening without sample pretreatments.
  Yanita IkaWidyasari , Sudjadi and Abdul Rohman
  Rat meat is not halal for Muslims, so that the presence of rat meat in any food is a crucial issue. The aim of this study was to design specific primer from Mitochondrial Cty b Rattus argentiventer that can be used for determining rat meat contamination or rat meat adulteration in meatball formulation using, Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The specificity of primers was confirmed in fresh tissue from pigs, cows, chickens, goats, rabbits and white mice. The designed primers were then used to analyze rat meat DNA in meatball formulation made from rat meat and beef mixture at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100% incorporation of rat meat. The repeatability test was performed by measuring the amplification from fresh rat tissue and rat meat in meatball. Primers were also subjected to sensitivity test of 6 dilution series (50000, 5000, 500, 50, 5 and 0.5 pg μL–1) of rat tissue. From two primers designed, primers cytb 42 (forward: 5’-TAA CCA CTC CTT CAT CGA CCT T-3’; reverse: 5’-CCC CGT TGG CGT GTA AAT A-3’) were more specific to evaluate the presence of rat meat in fresh tissue and in meatball formulation at optimum annealing temperature of 61.4°C. The primers can be used for DNA identification by RT-PCR with sensitivity expressed by limit of detection of 5 pg or in meatball formulation at concentration of 1% rat meat.
  Afif Turindra Muttaqien , Yuny Erwanto and Abdul Rohman
  This study aimed to identify the type of "rambak" (cracker) by comparing rambak made from buffalo skin and that made from pig skin using fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method. Samples of lipid obtained during Soxhlet extraction from buffalo skin, pig skin, rambak from buffalo skin and rambak from pig skin was analyzed. The lipid was scanned using FTIR spectrophotometer aided with chemometrics of Partial Least Square (PLS) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA). After optimization procedure, wave number of 1200-1000 cm–1 was selected for analysis. The results showed that the relationship between the predicted value to the true value of pig skin in rambak has coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.96, root mean square of calibration (RMSEC) of 2.56 and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP) of 1.10. The PCA models successfully classify types of buffalo skin, pig skin and commercial rambak. The PLS calibration model and PCA can be used to classification and quantification of the various types of used skin lipid.
  Any Guntarti , Sudibyo Martono , Agustinus Yuswanto and Abdul Rohman
  Bakso or meatball is one of the Indonesian favorite foods made from beef. This food is quite popular among Indonesian societies. Due to the high price of beef, unethical producers adulterate beef with wild boar. In this research, we developed Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate calibration of Partial Least Square (PLS) calibration to analyze wild boar in beef meatball. Meanwhile, the chemometrics of Principle Componen Analysis (PCA) is used to classify wild boar and beef in the meatball. The relationship between actual value of wild boar (x-axis) and FTIR predicted value (y-axis) at optimized wavenumbers region is y = 0.9749x+1.4658 with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.988 and Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 2.0%. Furthermore, PCA was successfully used for the classification of wild boar meatball and beef meatball.
  Theresia Sepminarti , Sudjadi , Herllya Selvi Wardani and Abdul Rohman
  Currently, along with the development of science and technology, the diversification of food products occurs in the market. Food products can contain non-halal components like porcine gelatine. One of food suspected to use gelatine is soft candy. Gelatin can be made from pork or beef or other animal. The presence of porcine gelatine in any food products is not allowed for Moslem community, therefore an analytical method offering reliable results must be developed. This study is intended to use Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for analysis of porcine gelatine in soft candy. Isolation of DNA was performed with mitochondrial DNA Isolation Kit K280-50 (Bio-Vision). The DNA was analyzed by RT-PCR using primer D-Loop 318. Analysis for the primer specificity was performed on fresh tissue (pig, cows, chickens, goats and rats) and gelatin sources (beef, pigs and catfish). Primer D-loop318 can amplify porcine DNA at the optimum temperature 61.4°C. Repeatability test demonstrated amplification of all positive response samples containing porcine DNA in serial dilution of 10000-1 pg). The Coefficient of Variation (CV) is 6.32%. The repeatability test was also performed on soft candy 100% having CV of 1.06%. The commercial soft candy samples evaluated do not contain porcine DNA.
  Ahmad Nurkhin , Abdul Rohman and Hasan Mukhibad
  This research aims to understand the accounting student’s intention to use e-Journal for learning purposes by using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use Technology (UTAUT) Model. This research observed all Accountancy student’s at the Universitas Negeri Semarang, taking Accounting and Accounting Education Programmes. The data were collected by using questionnaire. The UTAUT Model was analysed by using Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA). The result showed that performance expectancy and effort expectancy significantly affected the intention to use e-Journal. Social influence has no significant influence to behavioural intention. Behavioural intention and facilitating condition have significant impact on the use of e-Journal using UTAUT Model. In addition, gender variable significantly moderated the influences of performance expectancy and effort expectancy to e-Journal actual use. This research is valuable for examining determinants of the use of e-Journal for the students by using UTAUT Model. Further research may be considered by extending new variable as in fields of experience or knowledge regarding information and technology.
  Henry W. Darmoko and Abdul Rohman
  The purpose of this study is to reveal the phenomena that occur related with accounting practice in legislative elections in Indonesia. The results of this study reveal the phenomenon of preparation of campaign funding reports conducted by using the services of accounting consultants and conducted by the administrators of political parties themselves. The phenomenon of campaign audit report audit practices revealed that the audit was conducted without examining the evidence directly but by phone and email. This research is a qualitative research, using the transcendental phenomenology of Moustakas in 1994 arguing that it focuses on Husserl’s concept of "epoche" whose researchers have to get rid of their experience to gain a fresh perspective on the phenomenon under study in the case of legislative elections in Indonesia. This phenomenon indicates the lack of accountability of campaign funding reports and indicates the weakness of accounting practice in the political field.
  Ratno Agriyanto , Abdul Rohman and Dwi Ratmono
  This study investigates the behavior of internal users in using accrual accounting information for decision-making with the antecedents of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavior control and intention use of accrual accounting information. The accrual accounting information describes the usefulness of the implementation of accrual basis accounting for government institution. The main research model is developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The population target is all financial managers of local governments that have been implementing accrual basis accounting in Indonesia. Questionnaires were distributed to 195 financial managers of which 146 were returned. The results show that the measurement model and structural model are acceptable. Hypothesis testing results show that TPB can explain the behavioral use of accounting information for decision-making in local government institutions in Indonesia. A number of limitations and implications is finally discussed.
  Abdul Rohman , Diana Silawati , Sudjadi and Sugeng Riyanto
  The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of UV-spectrophotometry in combination of multivariate calibration based on Partial Least Square (PLS) regression for simultaneous quantitative analysis and dissolution evaluation of sulfamethoxazole (SUL) and trimethoprim (TRI) in tablet dosage form. The experimental calibration and validation matrixes were constructed with 20 and 10 samples, respectively. The concentration range considered was 1-16 μg mL–1 for both SUL and TRI. The absorbance data of the calibration standards were taken between 200-400 nm. For achieving the best calibration model, the related parameters were evaluated. The optimum number of factors was selected by using the cross-validation method. The evaluation of calibration model is relied on the coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC). The coefficient of determination (R2) for the relationship between actual values and predicted values of SUL and TRI was higher than 0.99 indicating good accuracy of the developed method. The RMSEC values obtained were relatively low, namely 0.167% (SUL) and 0.279% (TRI), which indicate acceptable precision of analytical method. The accuracy of developed method was comparable to that of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The UV spectrophotometry in combination with PLS calibration model was successfully used for quantitative analysis and dissolution studies of SUL and TRI sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in tablet dosage form.
  Abdul Rohman , Yani Ardiyanti , Sudjadi and Sugeng Riyanto
  The method of choice for analysis of drugs in multi-component preparations is chromatographic based technique such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). However, chromatographic method is time consuming and requiring much effort. As a consequence, some simple methods such as UV spectrophotometry are continuously developed, especially in combination with the chemometrics software. The UV-vis spectrophotometry coupled with multivariate calibration of Partial Least Square (PLS) has been developed for quantitative analysis of paracetamol, guaiphenesin and chlopheniramine maleate in the presence of phenylpropanolamine without separation step. The calibration model is prepared by developing a series of sample mixture comprising these drugs in certain proportion. The evaluation of calibration model was based on coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC). The result showed that UV spectrophotometry combined with PLS can be used for quantitative analysis of drugs. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the relationship between actual values and predicted values was higher than 0.99 indicating good accuracy. The RMSEC values obtained were relatively low indicating good precision. The accuracy of developed method was compared to that of HPLC. The developed method was successfully used for analysis of paracetamol, guaiphenesin and chlopheniramine maleate in tablet dosage form.
  Hari Widada , Abdul Rohman , Riris Istighfari Jenie and Sismindari
  Background and Objective: Sensitivity is very important in DNA detection. Various attempts have been made to increase detection sensitivity, including increasing the detection capabilities of devices and using DNA probes. This study was aimed to develop a DNA detection method using a quencher-free molecular beacon (QFMB) probe with the help of graphene oxide (GO) as a quencher. Materials and Methods: The GO has the specific ability to adsorb DNA in the form of a single strand but not in a double strand. The optimum interaction between the MB probe and the target DNA (pig DNA) could produce a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) so that it is detached from the GO surface. The dsDNA that escapes from the surface of the GO can be detected using a spectrofluorometric technique at an excitation wavelength of 482 nm and an emission of 519 nm, with an intensity comparable to its concentration. Results: The optimum condition that can be used is a GO concentration of 5 μg mL1, a reaction temperature of 65°C, an incubation time of 6 min, a reaction pH of 7.5 and cation levels of 40 nM. Analysis of the target pork meatball DNA carried out at a concentration interval of 0-500 pg mL1. Conclusion: So it was concluded that the DNA detection system uses a combination of a quencher-free molecular beacon and graphene oxide, providing a good prospect to be developed into a new method in the halal authentication of meat products using the spectrofluorometric method.
  Toto Sudargo , Rio Jati Kusuma , Tonny Arjuna , Rasita Amelia Hasnawati , Dianandha Septiana Rubi and Abdul Rohman
  In Indonesia, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is still high. Iron fortification in food using sodium ferry EDTA (NaFeEDTA) potentially reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficient anemia was induced in female Wistar rats by feeding low iron (Fe) diet and was randomly divided into ten groups where one group was fed normal diet which serves as control group. Every treatment group will receive FeSO4, tempe and iron-fortified tempe (temFe) with iron dosage of 6, 12 and 24 ppm respectively for 17 days. Blood was drawn for serum iron (SI) and serum ferritin (SF) measurement. After treatment, temFe 24 ppm group has the highest SI and the highest SI changed compared with other treatment groups although no significant different (p>0.05) was observed between temFe 24 ppm group and FeSO4 24 ppm group for SI (139.36±1.58 vs 134.10±2.73 μg/dL) and SI changed (89.40±2.78 vs 84.47±2.41 μg/dL). SF was increased in all treatment diet with the highest was found in FeSO4 24 ppm group (73.25±3.16 ng/mL). However, SF level wasn’t significantly different between the FeSO4 24 ppm, tempe 24 ppm and temFe 24 ppm and group (p>0.05). Iron fortification in tempe with NaFeEDTA will restore both SI and SF in iron deficiency anemia.
  Rr Dewi Ngaisyah and Abdul Rohman
  Background and Objective: The insufficient consumption of food containing protein is one of the factors contributing to stunting in children. The stunting prevalence in Saptosari, Gunung Kidul District, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, is high at 48.2%. This study aimed to analyze the impact of fish consumption as a local food alternative for the reduction of stunting in toddlers. Materials and Method: This observational study used the prospective cohort approach. The study was conducted in the Ngrenehan shoreline, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The data were collected from March to June 2017. The study included 50 participants from a total of 96 people. The samples were determined using simple random sampling technique. The data on stunting reduction were collected by comparing the height/age z-score between the height at toddler age and the normal height of school-age children. Data regarding fish consumption were collected through interviews using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: There was a relationship between fish consumption and stunting reduction. The chi-square analysis resulted in a p-value of 0.011 and an odds ratio (OR) value of 6.11 (1.66-22.49). Toddlers with low fish consumption were stunted at a rate of six times higher than those with adequate fish consumption. Conclusion: Due to the positive relationship between fish consumption and stunting reduction, it is highly recommended for children and societies to consume fish, which can be considered a local food alternative.
  Abdul Rohman , Sudjadi , Devi , Dwiky Ramadhani and Ardi Nugroho
  FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration of Partial Least Square (PLS) has been developed for quantification of curcumin in the ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa Linn and Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb. The optimization was done by selecting the best wavenumbers regions capable of providing the high coefficient of determination (R2) and low values of Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC). Finally, wavenumbers region of 2000-950 cm–1 was selected for prediction of curcumin in the extracts. The correlation between actual values of curcumin determined by HPLC and FTIR predicted values using FTIR spectroscopy combined with PLS in ethanolic extract of C. longa and C. xanthorriza at 2000-950 cm–1 revealed R2 values of 0.96 and 0.99, respectively. The RMSEC values obtained are 0.299 and 0.089 for C. longa and C. xanthorriza, respectively. The high value of R2 and low value of RMSEC indicated the high accuracy and precision of FTIR spectroscopy for quantification of curcumin in the extracts. These results indicated that FTIR spectroscopy combined with PLS is an alternative technique for determination of curcumin in Curcuma species. The developed method (FTIR spectroscopy) is rapid, no sample preparation and not involving excessive solvents and reagents.
  Abdul Rohman , Liling Triyasmono , Sugeng Riyanto and Lisa Andina
  A simple, rapid and reproducible method for determining the Saponification Value (SV) of Red Fruit Oil (RFO) was developed using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration of Partial Least Square (PLS). A calibration model was developed using a series of RFO subjected to several thermal treatments, namely at ambient temperature 28, 100, 150, 180, 200 and 300°C, respectively. Based on the optimization processes, the FTIR spectra of RFO samples were measured in the frequency region of 1145-1168 cm–1 for SV determination. The relationship between actual values of SV as determined using AOCS method and FTIR predicted value as determined with FTIR spectroscopy in combination with PLS calibration model showed a close relationship with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998 and the value of Standard Error of Calibration (SEC) was 0.79%. This study concluded that ATR-FTIR spectra can be used to determine SV of RFO. The developed method is simple, rapid with a total analysis time per sample of less than 2 min and environment friendly.
  Luthfia Indriyani , Abdul Rohman and Sugeng Riyanto
  A study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of avocado oil derived from three Indonesian avocado cultivars, namely Bantul (MAB), Purwokerto (MAP) and Garut (MAG). The extraction of avocado oil from avocado fruit was carried out using solvent extraction method. The avocado oil obtained from all samples had a green yellowish color. The iodine value of MAG is 88.7 g I2/100 g oil, slightly higher than MAB (87.0 g I2/100 g oil) and MAP (77.09 g I2/100 g oil) indicated that MAG contains more unsaturated fatty acid. The saponification values of avocado oil were 193.1 mg KOH/g oil for MAB, 198.4 mg KOH/g oil for MAP and 153.17 mg KOH/g oil for MAG, respectively. The peroxide values of MAB, MAP and MAP were 166.1, 124.7 and 14.9 meq kg–1 oil, respectively. The Conjugated Dienes (CDs) and Conjugated Trienes (CTs) value of MAB, MAP and MAG were significantly different in the specific absorptivity range value from 2.6-3.7. The MAG had lowest CDs and CTs value. The anisidine value for avocado oil samples ranged from 10.59-11.36. There were no significant differences in the anisidine value among avocado oil samples. Avocado oil samples had high amounts of total unsaturated fatty acids, i.e., MAB (55.7%), MAP (62.8%) and MAG (68.9%), respectively. Thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that avocado oil from three different cultivar had different melting and crystallization profile. Principal component analysis was used to classify each sample based on their DSC parameters. The results showed that by using the melting and crystallization profiles the discrimination of three avocado oils was very clear.
  Abdul Rohman , Fajar A. Lumakso and Sugeng Riyanto
  The falsification of high price edible oils such as avocado oil become a serious problem in the oil trade. Simple and rapid methods for identifying and discriminating authentic Avocado Oil (AO) from its adulterants are increasing demand. This current work proposes the use of combination of mid infrared spectroscopy technique with Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) as direct and rapid tool to discriminate authentic AO from the adulterants of Soybean Oil (SO) and Grape Seed Oil (GSO) in binary and ternary mixture. Discrimination was carried out using the chemometrics approach, namely PLS-DA based on the infrared spectral data. The selected frequency used for authentication of AO was 1500-750 cm–1. Special spectral treatment of smoothing and offset correction was implemented to reduce the noise and background spectral. Furthermore, the high accuracy and clear discrimination were obtained with 100% correctness for binary mixture analysis and 93.3% for ternary mixture.
  Yohanes Martono , Sugeng Riyanto , Sudibyo Martono and Abdul Rohman
  Background and Objective: Simulated stevia beverages contain major diterpene glycoside, stevioside and rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana . Methodology: The objective of this study was to develop FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis of Partial Least Square (PLS) regression for determination of stevioside and rebaudioside A in simulated stevia beverages. The PLS calibration was optimized by selecting wave number region capable provided the highest coefficient determination, R2 and lowest Root Mean Square Error Calibration (RMSEC). Results: Finally, the combined wave number range of 1161-2773 and 868-1041 cm–1 using Multiplicative Scattering Correction (MSC) followed by offset correction transformation spectra was chosen for stevioside determination with R2 and RMSEC value of 0.9954 and 3.40%, respectively. Meanwhile, selected wave number region at 791-1839 cm–1 without spectra transformation revealed optimal PLS regression for rebaudioside A determination with R2 and RMSEC of 0.9820 and 2.91%, respectively. Conclusion: The FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis of PLS regression could be used an alternative method for determining stevioside and rebaudioside A in simulated stevia beverages.
  Irma Antasionasti , Sugeng Riyanto and Abdul Rohman
  Background: Synthetic-based antioxidants are suspected to cause toxic or mutagenic effects toward human health, therefore, the demand for natural antioxidants increased. One of the natural antioxidant sources is Avocado Peel (AP). Objective: The objective of this study is to determine antioxidant activities of the extract, fractions and isolates from AP using in vitro method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) radical scavenging, reducing power of iron (III) as well as total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction of AP is fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography and gravitation column chromatography methods. To identify the chemical structure of the active compound of antioxidants in AP, FTIR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are used. Results: Among extracts evaluated, methanol extract has the strongest antioxidant activity. Further fractionation of methanolic extract showed that fraction 8 is the most active fraction with IC50 values of 4.221±0.137 mg mL–1 (DPPH assay) and 0.855±0.013 mg mL–1 (ABTS assay), with reducing power of iron (III) of 723.067±18.849 mg ascorbic acid g–1 fraction. Phenolics contents contributed 37, 40.78 and 47.45%, compared with the contribution of flavonoids compounds of 26.71, 19.25 and 34.62% for DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power of iron (III) to iron (II), respectively. Isolation of the fraction 8 of methanol extract indicated the presence of 1,2,4-trihidroksiheptadek-12,16-diyne and isolation of the ethyl acetate extract indicated the presence of 1,2,4-trihidroksiheptadek-16-yne-18-ene. Conclusion: The AP is potential to be used as food supplement due to its antioxidant activities.
  K.D. Karlina Aprilia , Abdul Rohman , Anis Chariri and Imam Ghozali
  The objective of this study to investigate the association between cash compensation and bank performance and to observe whether credit risk and earning management mediate the relationship between cash compensation and bank performance. Data collected from 34 banks that listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2009-2014. The result showed that cash compensation has direct effect on bank performance. Credit risk was not a mediating variabel but earning management was able to mediate relationship between cash compensation and bank performance.
 
 
 
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