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Articles by Abdul Wahab Mohammad
Total Records ( 4 ) for Abdul Wahab Mohammad
  Abdul Wahab Mohammad , Norhazwani Mohd. Suhimi , Abdul Ghani Kumar Abdul Aziz and Jamaliah Md. Jahim
  Collagen is not a uniform substance, but is rather a family of protein. It is a group of naturally occurring proteins found in animals, especially in the flesh and connective tissues of mammals. For food or nutritional purpose, collagen is broken down into gelatine which can be broken down further into hydrolysed collagen. Hydrolysed collagen is a polypeptide composite made by further hydrolysis of denatured collagen or gelatin and the molecular weights are within the range approximately 500 to 25000 Da. In hydrolysate, the molecular mass and the size of the molecules have been deliberately decreased by hydrolysis part of peptide bonds of the gelatine molecules. This will make the hydrolysed collagen dissolved in cold water and does not gel anymore but still has surface active properties. The processes involved in processing hydrolysed collagen are demineralization, extraction of collagen to gelatine, enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain hydrolysed collagen, ion exchange, filtration, evaporation, sterilization and finally drying. In previous study a large number of studies focused on the enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen or gelatine for the production of bioactive peptide. However, studies focusing on the process development of hydrolysed collagen are still limited. This study thus will briefly describe the process design, market potential, research and development work and potential future research development for the production of hydrolysed collagen from agriculture sources such as cattle bones, fish skins and fish scales.
  Indok Nurul Hasyimah Mohd. Amin and Abdul Wahab Mohammad
  One of the major drawbacks for the successful of Ultrafiltration (UF) during pretreatment of glycerin-rich solution is membrane fouling due to the deposition of Triglycerides (TG) and Fatty Acids (FA). The aim of the present study is to contribute to the better understanding of fouling by TG as well as TG-FA mixtures and their adsorption properties on UF membrane. Additionally, another significant part of this study was the elucidation of the solute-solute interaction in the feed solution. Two UF membranes were used with the membrane materials made from Polyethersulfone (PES) and Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) with MWCO between 5, 20 and 25 kDa for PES, while 30 kDa for PVDF. Static adsorption of TG and TG-FA were investigated at the solution pH values of 3, 7 and 10; for different MWCO. The behavior of solute adsorption was investigated by taking into account the thickness of fouling layer, the percentage of pore reduction and the water RFR. It was observed that the addition of TG into the glycerin-rich solutions caused a significant relative flux reduction (RFR) than TG-FA and this was probably due to the formation of macromolecule on the membrane surface. The RFR was also dependent on the solution chemistry. Adsorption behavior onto membrane surfaces were analyzed by contact angle and SEM images. Overall results revealed that PES membrane exhibited severe fouling and much larger water RFR than PVDF due to its hydrophobicity and surface roughness.
  Chai Hoon Koo , Abdul Wahab Mohammad , Fatihah Suja and Meor Zainal Meor Talib
  Modified Fouling Index (MFI) serves as an indicator for characterizing the fouling potential of a feedwater. This work focused on the development of membrane fouling index measurement method for the evaluation of membrane fouling potential. Crossflow sampler (CFS) was incorporated into the development of fouling index to investigate the influence of CFS on the MFI tests. Colloidal silica with the particle size of 70-100 nm was adopted as a model foulant. Results were verified based on the effect of colloidal silica concentration (i.e., 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg L) on the MFI and CFS-MFI values. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes with Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO) of 150 and 100 kDa were employed to study the effect of membrane MWCO as the test membrane in the dead-end cell on the fouling indices. Through the experimental results, the best membrane for the colloidal silica particles was determined. The results indicated that the fouling indices through PVDF 100 membrane were higher than that of PVDF 150 due to the retention of particles on membrane with smaller MWCO. In terms of the silica concentration effects, the fouling indices increased significantly with the increase in feed silica concentration. The rate of increment for the fouling indices through PVDF100 membrane (R2~0.99) was found to have a stronger degree of linear relationship with the silica concentration than PVDF150 (R2<0.75), indicating that the PVDF100 membrane was a more appropriate test membrane for fouling index tests on model foulant of colloidal silica (70-100 nm).
  Abdul Ghani Kumar Abdul Aziz , Abdul Wahab Mohammad , Norhazwani Mohd. Suhimi and Jamaliah Md. Jahim
  The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of substrate concentration and enzyme concentration towards degree of hydrolysis for production of gelatine hydrolysate through enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis was performed using two types of commercial gelatine sources as substrates; bovine gelatine and fish gelatine with gel strengths of 261 and 257 g, respectively. Alcalase 2.4 L, a microbial protease was used in this study as it was reported to give highest percentage of DH in previous study. During hydrolysis, DH was monitored continuously according to pH-stat method. Results showed that the hydrolysate obtained from a 5% substrate concentration at 2% enzyme concentration gave the highest DH for both type of gelatine; 9.70% when using bovine gelatine and 8.13% when using fish gelatine. This study confirmed that there were significant effects between substrate and enzyme concentration towards the degree of breakdown of peptide chain in gelatine molecule.
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