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Articles by Abdul Rahman Omar
Total Records ( 4 ) for Abdul Rahman Omar
  Ehsan Oskoueian , Norhani Abdullah , Wan Zuhainis Saad , Abdul Rahman Omar and Yin Wan Ho
  Phorbol Esters (PEs) from Jatropha curcas seeds are known to have toxicity effects on various animal tissues but little is known about their effects on microorganisms residing in the gut systems of animals when the compounds are consumed. Hence, in the present study, the effects of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal on rumen microbial activities were determined. The rumen microbial fermentation, enzyme activity, microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial population and the morphology of rumen microbes were examined in vitro in the presence of PEs at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6% with 200 mg of Panicum maximum as substrate. The results showed that PEs at 1.5 and 3% did not affect the rumen microbial fermentation activities including, dry matter digestibility, in vitro gas production at 24 h, total VFA, acetic: propionic ratio and cellulolytic enzyme activity (carboxymethylcellulase, filter paperase). However, microbial activities were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed at 4.5 and 6% PEs. On the other hand, microbial protein synthesis and microbial population (general bacteria, fungi, protozoa, methanogens, archaea and major cellulolytic bacteria) values were significantly (p<0.05) reduced at all levels of PEs. Morphological examination using scanning electron microscopy revealed the aggregation and membrane disruption of the rumen microbes. The results of this study showed that, although PEs affected the rumen microbial activities in a dose-dependent manner with no significant adverse effects up to 3% but the microbial population was significantly suppressed (p<0.05) at all levels of PEs.
  Ehsan Oskoueian , Norhani Abdullah , Wan Zuhainis Saad , Abdul Rahman Omar , Mansor Bin Puteh and Yin Wan Ho
  Jatropha curcas Linn. seed upon oil extraction resulted in a protein enriched byproduct called kernel meal. The presence of anti-nutritional metabolites in high levels renders the meal unsuitable as an animal feed. This research was carried out to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the level of anti-nutritional metabolites present in the kernel meal. The effects of treated kernel meal on rumen microbial fermentation were evaluated in vitro. Proximate analysis of kernel meal obtained from J. curcas grown in Malaysia showed 61.8% crude protein, 9.7% NDF and 4.8% ADF. The anti-nutritional metabolites analyses showed high levels of total phenolic (3.9 mg g-1 DM), total saponin (1.9 g 100 g-1 DM), phytic acid (9.1%), trypsin inhibitors (34.2 mg g-1 DM), lectin activity (102.7 mg mL-1) and phorbolesters (3.0 mg g-1 DM). Combination of hydrothermal treatment, alkali and oxidizing agents alleviated the levels of anti-nutritional metabolites. Phenolic compounds, saponin and phorbolesters levels declined significantly (p<0.05) while the level of phytic acid did not decrease. Trypsin inhibitors and lectin activity were fully inactivated. The level of phorbolesters decreased by 76.7% in treatment with heat, 3% (w/w) NaOH and 10% (v/w) NaOCl. In vitro fermentation by rumen microbes showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in fermentation parameters when chemically treated kernel meal was used as substrates while physically treated kernel meal did not affect the fermentation parameters significantly.
  Zahraa Faisal , Aini Ideris , Mohd Hair-Bejo , Abdul Rahman Omar and Tan ChingGiap
  The detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection in chickens in selected commercial farms (breeder, broiler and layer), Progeny-pipped Embryos (PE) and day old chicks Poor Quality Chicks (PQC) and Normal Chicks (NC) obtained from Peninsular, Malaysia was determined. These farms have the history of vaccination with mild live and killed MG vaccine or antimicrobial prophylactic or treatment. To conduct this study, a total of 3056 samples were collected and conventional PCR test was performed using specific gene target sequence, encoding the surface protein for detection of MG directly from the clinical samples without prior isolation of the target MG. The primer was designed to bind to the adherence protein a (GAPA) and amplify a 505 bp DNA fragment and there are no secondary copies of this gene. Results revealed that five hundred seventy one positive samples of MG out of 3056 samples were obtained and the overall prevalence was 18.68%. This study shows high detection of MG infection through vertical and horizontal transmission from many geographically distinct areas of the country although, these farms had vaccination and treatment history. So, these results demonstrated that MG eradication program is not successful, despite the use of live and killed MG vaccines, an extensive medication program and strict biosecurity. It is recommended that PCR assay is used to monitor broiler breeder flocks for MG challenge during the laying cycle using progenies and confirm that point of lay broiler-breeder pullets are free of field MG strain. In addition to the importance of flock health monitoring in progenies, especially those pipped embryos and poor quality chicks and especially breeders in order to provide MG-free progeny.
  Mukminah Sakinah Wahab , Mohd Hair-Bejo , Abdul Rahman Omar and Aini Ideris
  Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is a highly contagious viral disease of chickens. Application of liposomes in IBD vaccine may enhance vaccine delivery and induce high immune response. It was objective of the study to determine the effect of cationic liposomes in induction of IBD antibody. The 85 days old broiler chicks were divided into 4 groups namely the control, IBD, Covac and Sevac groups. The chicks in the control group were not vaccinated. The IBD group was vaccinated with commercial IBD vaccine, MyHatch UPM93 (103 EID50/0.1 mL) whilst the Covac group was vaccinated with combination 1:2 ratio of MyHatch UPM93 and cationic liposomes. The Sevac group was vaccinated with combination 1:2 ratio of the IBDV seed virus (103 EID50/ 0.1 mL) and cationic liposomes. The commercial and IBD seed virus were used in this study to determine the most effective and practical approach in application of liposomes during vaccine preparation. The chicks were vaccinated via. subcutaneous route (0.1 mL per chick) at day old in hatchery or hatchery vaccination. All groups of chicks were sacrificed at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 post vaccination (pv) for samples collection, except 5 chicks were also sacrificed prior to vaccination at day-old age. The study showed that all chicks did not exhibit any abnormal clinical signs and gross lesions throughout the trial, except reduced in bursal weight were recorded at day 28 pv in the IBD, Covac and Sevac groups. Histologically, lesion scoring of the bursa of Fabricius was slightly increased at days 21 and 28 pv in the Covac and Sevac groups and day 28 pv in the IBD group. The IBD antibody titre for the Covac and Sevac groups were also significantly (p<0.05) increased at days 21 and 28 pv and day 28 pv in the IBD group. It was concluded that the application of cationic liposomes can enhance the delivery of IBD vaccine to the bursa of Fabricius and induce high level of IBD antibody with mild bursal lesion.
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